The Printable KISS Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Quotation Marks
"The Tree and the Bird"
From Ben and Alice
Analysis Key

     Remember that the students are not expected to analyze the clauses. All they should have on their papers is a "C" above every opening quotation mark.
     I like the red dog house (DO). | [DO Do you want me to draw a tree [#1] 

{by the dog house}?] said Ben. | [#2]

     We want a tree (DO) {by the house}. | [DO *You* Draw a tree (DO)

{by the house} {for us},] said the children. |

      Ben made a picture (DO) {of a tree}. |

     [DO I will draw a little bird (DO) {in the tree},] said Alice. |

     The tree was black (PA) and white (PA). |

      The bird was black (PA) and white (PA). |

     [DO What color (PN) is a tree, Ben [DirA] ?] said Miss Brown. |

     [DO A tree is green (PA),] said Ben. |

     [DO Who will color the tree (DO) {for us}?] said Miss Brown. |

     I will! | [DO I will!] said the children. |

     [DO What color (PN) is your bird?] said Miss Brown. |

     [DO My bird is blue (PA),] said Alice. |

     We will color the bird blue [#3]. | We will color the tree green [#3]. | 

[DO We have made a good picture (DO),] said Betty. |

1. Most students will probably mark only "me" as the complement, and for now that is fine. Technically, "tree" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to draw." "Me" is the subject of that infinitive, and the infinitive phrase is the direct object of "Do want."
2. You may have noticed why students are expected at this point only to mark the opening quotation mark for the complement. We have here a common problem that grammar textbooks never address. The meaningful direct object of verbs like "said" is the quotation. But quotations can be many sentences long. In this example, we have two sentences within the quotation marks. In the last sentence of the exercise, there are three sentences within the quotation marks.  "KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?" explains the final KISS explanation of such clauses. In effect, quotations that precede the "said" are considered main clauses and the "said"-type clauses are viewed as interjections.
3. Expect students to be confused by "bird blue" and "tree green." Some students may see "bird" and "tree" as the complements. At this point, accept that. Others may feel that the "blue" and "green" are parts of the complement. They are right. Technically, these are two ellipsed infinitive constructions -- "bird *to be* blue" and "tree *to be* green." The infinitive phrases function as the direct objects of "will color." For more on this see "Ellipsed infinitives" in KISS Level 4.