The Printable KISS Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

An Exercise in Capitalization and Punctuation
The Canary
Adapted from: Chit-chat stories for little folks.
Analysis Key

    Poor bird! He is singing very sweetly, but he does not look very happy. Indeed, I do not think any bird in a cage can be. How different his life must have been in the lovely Canary Islands! He has a perch, and seed and water, but what is all that without liberty?
     Poor bird! [#1]  He is singing very sweetly, | but he does not look 

very happy (PA) [#2]. | Indeed [Inj], I do not think [DO any bird

{in a cage} can be *happy* (PA)]. | How different (PA) his life must 

have been {in the lovely Canary Islands}! | He has a perch (DO), and 

seed (DO) and [#3] water (DO), | but what is all that (PN) {without liberty}? |


Notes
1. Rhetoricians probably have a term or terms)  for this construction, but you will not find it in any grammar textbook that I am aware of. In essence, it is a predicate noun is an ellipsed sentence--"*That is a* poor bird!" Obviously, we can't expect students to understand that at this point in their work.
2. See KISS Level 2.1.4 -- Palimpsest Patterns.
3. Note the comma after "perch" and the lack of one after "seed." The lack of that comma breaks the direct objects into two groups--where he sits ("perch") and what he eats and drinks ("seeds and water").