Notes for 
Exercise # 4 Based on The Tale of Tom Kitten, by Beatrix Potter

     This is a somewhat simplified version of the opening of the original text. The primary objectives for second and third graders are the capitalization of the first word in a sentence, the capitalization of names, closing punctuation at the end of the sentence, and commas to separate items in a series. Potter used a semicolon plus "and" after "own." This combination can be found frequently in nineteenth century writing, but it is no longer the norm. (I would not even introduce second and third graders to semicolons.)
     Note that these punctuation exercises can easily and quickly be done in class, especially if you make an overhead of the exercise. You could have the students copy the text and fix the punctuation, and then review it in class, or you could simply have them do it orally, as a group, while you mark the changes with a washable ink pen. I would certainly not collect and grade most of these exercises. Doing so is much too time-consuming, and ultimately not productive.
     Teachers can, of course, tell students to skip the identification of prepositional phrases, etc. On the other hand, for some students, this analysis may be important because it will illustrate that every normal sentence has to have a subject and verb.



     Once upon a time there were three little kittens. Their names were Mittens, Tom Kitten, and Moppet.
     They had dear little fur coats of their own, [#1] and they tumbled about the doorstep and played in the dust.
     But one day their mother expected friends to tea. She fetched the kittens indoors.
     First she scrubbed their faces.
     Then she brushed their fur.
     Then she combed their tails and whiskers.
     Tom was very naughty, and he scratched.
 

     Once {upon a time} there [#2] were three little kittens (PN). | Their names were Mittens (PN)

Tom Kitten (PN), and Moppet (PN). |

     They had dear little fur coats (DO) {of their own}, | and they tumbled {about the

doorstep} and played {in the dust}. |

     But one day [NuA] their mother expected friends (DO) {to tea}. | She fetched 

the kittens (DO) indoors. |

     First she scrubbed their faces (DO). |

     Then she brushed their fur (DO). |

     Then she combed their tails (DO) and whiskers (DO). |

     Tom was very naughty (PA), | and he scratched. |


Notes
1. A period and capital "A" on "and" would also be acceptable here.
2. Alternatively, "there" can be explained either as an expletive or as an adverb, thereby making "kittens" the subject. See KISS Level 2.1.3 - Expletives (Optional).