The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Literature Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

The Logic of Subordinate Clauses
from At the Back of the North Wind
Analysis Key

     Students may ask about the functions of some words in the sentences. The following key provides answers to the specific directions plus the rest of the analysis. 

1. [Adv. (Time) to "took" After he was warmed (P) and comforted (P) ],

     they took him (DO) back home [NuA] and knocked {on the door} 

     to arouse his mother [#1]. |

2. North Wind had sunk his and Mr. Coleman's ship (DO) [Adv. (C/E -

      cause)  to "had sunk" because their business was not honest (PA) and 

     was making bad men (DO) {of them}]. |

3. {In parts}, the river was so high (PA) [Adv. (C/E - result) to "so" that 

     some {of the grass} and some {of the roots} {of the trees} were {under water}]. |

4. But how can you carry them (DO) there [Adv. (C/E - condition)  to "can 

      carry" if you never saw the place (DO) ?] |

5. How dark (PA) it was [Adv. (Space) to "was" and/or "dark" where she lived]. |

6. Once they ran {through a hall} [Adj. (ID) to "hall" where they found 

     both [#2]  the front and back doors open [#3] ]. |

7. He came {against the lowest} {of a few steps} [Adj. (ID) to "steps" that 

     stretched {across the church}]. |

8. He heard a low, soft murmuring (DO) [Adv. (C/E - manner) to "heard" 

      and/or "low" and "soft" as if they were talking {to themselves} {about him}]. |

The talking is presented as a possible cause of what he heard.
9. You lamed yourself (DO) {on purpose} [Adv. (C/E - purpose) to

      "lamed" so you could stay {in the stable} and stuff yourself (DO) 

     and grow fat (PA) !] |

The "You" is a horse.
10. But he was sorry (PA) [Adv. (C/E - cause to "sorry" that his mother 

     looked so sad (PA) and depressed (PA) ]. |

His mother's looks caused him to be sad.
11. But you are no bigger (PA) [Adv. (Comparison) to "bigger" than I am!] |
Note that it is a comparison of height (space).
12. Diamond's father had been stanch (PA) and true (PA) {to his 

      bargain}, [Adv. (C/E - concession) to "had been" though it had turned out 

     to be a hard one [#4] ]. |

Because it was a hard one, one might expect him not to have been stanch and true.
13. I am so happy (PA) [Adv. (result) to "so" that I am afraid (PA) [Adv.

      (C/E - cause to "afraid" it is a dream (PN) ]]. |

The "that" is ellipsed. That it is a dream causes me to be afraid.

Notes
1. "Mother" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to arouse." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb of purpose to "knocked."
2. "Both" can be explained as an adjective to "doors," as an appositive to "doors," and or as part of the coordinating conjunction "both . . . and."
3. "Doors" is the subject and "open" is the predicate adjective to an ellipsed infinitive "to be" -- "the doors *to be* open." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "found."
4. "One" is a predicate (pro)noun after the infinitive "to be." The infinitive phrase can be explained as an adverb (result) to "had turned out." Alternatively, "had turned out to be" can be considered the finite verb (it was a hard one), which makes "one" a simple predicate (pro)noun.