The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Literature Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

The Logic of Subordinate Clauses
from  At the Back of the North Wind
by George Macdonald
Analysis Key

     Students may ask about the functions of some words in the sentences. The following key provides answers to the specific directions plus the rest of the analysis.  

1. {At length}, they came down just [Adv. (Space) to "came" where a little spring 

     bubbled {out of a hill side}]. |

2. Diamond's father had built him (IO) a bed (DO) {in the loft} {with boards}

      all {around it}, [Adv. (C/E - cause)  to "in the loft" because there was so little 

     room (PN) {in their own end} {of the coach house}]. |

An argument can be made for adverbial to "had built." I would accept either answer, but it would be neat to have the class discuss it and then vote on which version they prefer.
3. So [Adv. (Time) to "told" when Diamond went home [NuA],] he told his 

     father (IO) all (DO) {about it}. |

4. He was very much afraid (PA) [Adv. (C/E - cause to "afraid" no one

     would hire him (DO) [Adv. (C/E - cause to "?" because he was such

      a little driver (PN) ]]. |

The "that" is ellipsed. The "because" clause is ambiguous. It could go to "would hire," as I have marked it above, or it could go to "afraid."
5. But [Adv. (C/E - condition)  to "not" if this tree had been there], it would

     not have been blown (P) down. | There is no wind (PN) {in that country}. |

6. He felt quite safe (PA) [#1] , [Adv. (C/E - concession) to "felt" and/or "safe"

     though he knew [DO, ID that they were sweeping {with the speed}

      {of the wind} itself [#2] {toward the sea}!]] |

One would expect that his knowledge of the speed would not have made him feel safe.
7. But her hair fell all {over her face} [Adv. (Result) to "fell" and/or "all" (which

      modifies "over her face") so that he could not see it (DO)]. |

8. He recalled the whole adventure (DO) {of the night} [Adj. (ID) to "night"

     when he had gone out {with North Wind} and made her put him [#3] 

     down {in a London street}]. |

9. So he read a little story (DO) {about the early bird} [Adj. (ID) to "bird"

     that caught the nice fat worm (DO) ]. |

10. She had known cripple Jim (DO) much longer [Adv. (Comparison) to

      "longer" than she had known Diamond (DO)]. |

Note that it is a comparison of time.
11. Diamond's mother could not help crying [#4] {over it} | but she came

     {into Diamond's room} [Adv. (C/E - purpose) to "came" and/or "into Diamond's

      room" so that the poor sick father should not hear it (DO)]. |

12.  [Adv. (C/E - manner) to "knew" As if the clouds knew [DO, ID she 

     had come]], they burst {into fresh thunderous light}. |

The clouds' knowing is implied as the cause of their bursting as well as the manner.
13. Nanny had been so happy (PA) [Adv. (Time) to "had been" since

     she left the hospital (DO) and had been living {with Diamond's

      family}]  [Adv. (Result) to "so" that she did not think [DO, ID  the 

     country would make her any happier [#5] ]]. |

1. Alternatively, one could explain "safe" as an adverb to "felt, but KISS typically explains this as a Palimpsest Pattern (in this case with "felt" written over "was." See KISS Level 2.1.4 - Palimpsest Patterns.
2. "Itself" is an appositive to "wind." Technically, it is inside the prepositional phrase. See KISS Level 5.4 - Appositives
3. "Her" is the subject and "him" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "put." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "made."
4. Alternatively, "crying" can be explained as a verbal (gerund) that functions as the direct object of "could help." Note that the two main clauses are joined by "but" without a preceding comma.
5. "Her" is the subject and "happier" is the predicate adjective to the ellipsed verbal (infinitive) "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "would make."