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(Code and Color Key)

The description of Sam, from 
The Trumpet of the Swan, by E. B. White
Analysis Key

     Sam was eleven (PA). | His last name was Beaver (PN). | He was strong

(PA) {for his age} and had black hair (DO) and dark eyes (DO) {like an Indian}. |

Sam walked {like an Indian}, too, putting one foot straight [#1] {in front} {of the other}

and making very little noise [#2]. | The swamp [Adj. to "swamp {through which} he was

traveling] was a wild place (PN) | -- there was no trail (PN), | and it was boggy

(PA) underfoot, [ [#3] which made walking difficult [#4] ]. | Every four or five minutes [NuA]

Sam took his compass (DO) {out of his pocket} and checked his course (DO) to 

make sure [#5] [ [#6] he was headed {in a westerly direction}]. | Canada is a big place

(PN). | Much {of it} is wilderness (PN). | To get lost [#7] {in the woods and swamps}

{of western Canada} would be a serious matter (PN). |

1. I would accept at least two different explanations here. Perhaps the simplest is to consider "foot" as the direct object of "putting," which is a gerundive that modifies "Sam." "Straight" is an adverb. However, some students might see "foot" as the subject of an ellipsed infinitive, with "straight" as its predicate noun -- "foot *to be* straight." The infinitive phrase would then function as the direct object of "putting." I would certainly not tell these students that they are wrong.
2. "Noise" is  the direct object of "making," which is a geurndive that modifies "Sam." Grammarians might get into long discussions about "little." Is it an adverb here, or is it a pronoun that functions as an adverb? The question is probably not worth the time spent debating it.
3. This is a fairly frequent, but not very frequent case in which an adjectival clause modifies the idea of a preceding clause, i.e., The fact that it was boggy underfoot made walking difficult. See the section in Level Three on "The 'Witch' in 'Which'."
4.  "Walking" is a gerund that functions as the subject of an ellipsed infinitive (*to be*); "difficult" is a predicate adjective in that infinitive phrase. The phrase functions as the direct object of "made."
5.  "To make" is an infinitive that functions as an adverb to "checked." A simple explanation of the "he ... direction" clause is in note 2 of the key for level three. There are probably several more complicated explanations within the KISS framework for this construction, but the one I like best is to say that it involves an ellipsed "to be" and a delayed subject of the ellipsed infinitive.  "Sure" then becomes a predicate adjective after the ellipsed infinitive. In effect, he makes it *to be* sure [certain] that he was headed in a westerly direction. This differs from the adverbial explanation of the "he" clause given in level three in that the "he" clause does not modify "sure," it is sure.
6. Here again, especially because of the complex infinitive construction "to make sure," I would not expect students to give a good explanation of this clause until they were studying KISS Level Five. With students who are not at that level, I would accept (or suggest) the explanation of the clause as an adverb to "sure." Then I would move on. Note that "make sure + a clause" is an idiomatic expression -- "Make sure you are home by supper time." It is not, in other words, a grammatical construction that students need guidance in using. A more complex explanation of this clause is offered in the key for level four, as part of the explanation of "sure."
7.  "To get lost" is an infinitive phrase that functions as the subject. "Lost" is a predicate adjective after "to get," which here means "to become."