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(Code and Color Key)
Jack and His Golden Box
The Opening of the Story
Analysis Key
     With 66 words in three main clauses (22 words per main clause), this passage will probably give most fourth graders a challenge. The real challenge, of course, will be in the final main clause with its three subordinate clauses, in one of which the subordinate conjunction is ellipsed. Note, however, that there are no verbals in this passage, and many fourth graders might surprise us with their ability to explain it.

     Long ago {in a great forest}, an old man and an old woman lived all alone {with

their one son}. |

     Now [#1] the son Jack [#2] had never seen any other people (DO) {in all his life}. |

But he knew [DO that there [Expletive] were some more (PN) {in the world} {besides

his own father and mother}] [Adv. to "knew" because he had lots (DO) {of books}] and

[Adv. to "knew" *because* he used to read every day [NuA] {about them}]. |


Notes
1. Most grammar books consider "now" to be an adverb, but here it clearly has the force of an interjection.
2. "Jack" is an appositive to "son."