The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Expletives
From My Book of Favorite Fairy Tales
by Edric  Vredenburg; Illustrated by Jennie Harbour
Analysis Key

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1. There was great joy (PN) {at their coming}. |  ["The Goose Girl"]

2. There is only a little dirty Cinderella (PN) here. | ["Cinderella"]

3. Now {at his Court} there was a young man (PN) called Avenant [#1]. | ["Goldenhair"]

4. {At the bottom} {of this pit} there is a little cave (PN). | ["Goldenhair"]

5. Then there was a grand wedding (PN). | ["Goldenhair"]

6. There stood [#2] {before the door} a large stone trough (PN). | ["Little Red Riding Hood"]

7. There is only a partition (PN) {between her room and ours}. | ["The White Fawn"]

8. Not long afterwards there was again great scarcity (PN) {in every corner} {of the land}. |  ["Hansel and Grethel"]

9. [DO "And there is no boat (PN) either,"] said Grethel, | "but there [#3] swims a white duck." | ["Hansel and Grethel"]

10. "There is something (PN) {for your dinner}; | *you* do not eat it (DO) {before the time}." | ["Hansel and Grethel"]


Notes
1. "Avenant' is a retained predicate noun after the passive gerundive "called."
2. KISS explains this as a palimpsest pattern, with "stood" written over "was." See KISS Level 2.1.4 - Palimpsest Patterns. Remember, however, you can use the option of considering "There" an expletive, and "trough" as the subject.
3. A case for "there" as an expletive here, and thus for "swims" as a verb in a palimpsest pattern. But in this case, the "there" seems to refer more to the place than to the "duck."