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(Code and Color Key)

Exercise # 2 Based on
"The Story of the First Moles" from
The Book of Nature Myths by Florence Holbrook
An Exercise in Punctuation
Analysis Key

     The original text is:
     The rich man had a son who was as wicked as himself. This boy whispered, "Father, tell him to come in the morning. I know how we can keep the land." So the rich man said, "Come in the morning, and we shall soon see whose land this is."
This passage is more difficult than the regular analysis exercises for third graders because it includes several subordinate clauses that may cause problems for students who have not yet studied them.

     The rich man had a son (DO) [Adj. to "son" who was as wicked (PA) {as 

himself}]. | This boy whispered, [DO "Father [DirA], *you* tell him (IO) to come

[#2] {in the morning}]. | [#1] I know [DO how we can keep the land (DO)]." | So

the rich man said, [DO "*You* Come {in the morning}], and [DO we shall soon

see [DO whose land (PN) this is]]." |


Notes
1. Here we face a problem that is rarely, if ever, discussed in grammar textbooks. From one perspective, the entire quotation is the direct object of "whispered." But if we mark all such clauses as subordinate direct objects, we will find entire paragraphs being labeled as direct objects of a verb in a sentence far before them. As readers, we certainly do not process such clauses as subordinate. In statistical studies, I follow the procedure of Kellogg Hunt and count only the first clause as a direct object, as I have done here. I could not, however, say that someone who marks each such clause as subordinate (as I have done in the next sentence) is wrong. 
2. "Him" is simultaneously the subject of the infinitive "to come" and the infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "tell."