The KISS Grammar Workbooks Back to April Menu
(Code and Color Key)

"The Crab That Played with the Sea," by Rudyard Kipling
Analysis Key

      This is wrong (PA). | *You* Launch your canoe (DO) | and

we will find out [DO of "will find out" who is playing {with the 

Sea},] [ [#1] said the Eldest Magician.] | They stepped {into 

the canoe}; | the little girl-daughter came {with them}; | and the

Man took his kris (DO) a curving, wavy dagger [#2] {with a blade}

{like a flame}, | and they pushed out {on the Perak river}. | Then the

Sea began to run back and back, | and the canoe was sucked (P)

{out of the mouth} {of the Perak river}, {past Selangor}, {past Malacca},

{past Singapore}, out and out {to the Island} {of Bingtang}, [Adv. to 

"was sucked" as though it had been pulled (P) {by a string}.] |

1. For a number of reasons, KISS treats the "said the Eldest Magician" as a subordinate clause that functions as an interjection. Most traditional grammars treat it as the main (or independent) clause, but because those grammars always deal with very simplistic sentences, it is not clear how such grammars would explain the preceding clauses in this sentence. (And then they wonder why students cannot apply what they have been "taught.")
2. Appositive to "kris." Note that if students understand what an appositive is, they can understand what a "kris" is, simply by reading the passage. Unfortunately, grammar is rarely taught very well, and, as reading teachers have told me, many students read words, not phrases and sentences. Such students would not be able to decipher the connection between "kris" and "dagger."