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Compound Main Clauses (Ex # 6): from
Stories of Robin Hood Told to the Children, by Henrietta Elizabeth Marshall
Analysis Key through KISS Level Three (Clauses) +



Note: The primary objective of this assignment is to have students combine main clauses. In the process, however, we can help them explore the implications of that combining. The sentences in the exercises are given below in blue. Below them, Marshall's originals are explored. Even as a conjunction, "but" has an implicit meaning of "except." In general, "and" implies a continuation in the direction of thought presented in the first main clause; "but," on the other hand, suggests an exception to what the reader (or hearer) probably expected.

1. Robin was not a coward. He was not afraid.

Robin was not a coward (PN), | and he was not afraid (PA). |
[One would expect someone who is not a coward to not be afraid.]
2. He had one son also named Robert. People called him Robin.
He had one son (DO) also named Robert [#1], | but people called him Robin [#2]. |
[One would expect people to be called by their real name.]
3. Birds sang and twittered in the branches. All the world was full of beauty.
Birds sang and twittered {in the branches}, | and all the world was full (PA) {of beauty}. |
[Singing birds are beautiful.]
4. There was a fierce and terrible fight. In the end Robert and all his men were killed.
There was a fierce and terrible fight (PN), | but {in the end} Robert and all his men were killed (P). |
[This is an interesting case because "and" would fit. It would imply, however, that the narrator (and readers) were expecting, perhaps even hoping, that Robert would be killed. That is, of course, not the case, so Marshall used "but."]
5. She was very sad and lonely now. All the world seemed dark and dreary.
She was very sad (PA) and lonely (PA) now, | and all the world seemed dark (PA) and dreary (PA). |
[This one should be obvious.]
6. The King laughed and said nothing. The next day he and his twelve nobles disguised themselves as monks, and rode out into the forest.
The King laughed and said nothing (DO), | but the next day [NuA] he and his twelve nobles disguised themselves (DO) {as monks}, and rode out {into the forest}. |
[His saying nothing sets up the expectation that he will do nothing.]

Notes
1. "Robert" is a retained predicate noun after the passive gerundive "named." The gerundive modifies "son."
2. KISS treats "Robin" as a predicate noun after an ellipsed infinitive "to be." "Him" is the subject of the infinitive, and the infinitive phrase "him *to be* Robin" functions as the direct object of "called."