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Directions Notes for Teachers
(Code and Color Key)

Expletives (Ex # 1): from 
Stories of Robin Hood Told to the Children 
by Henrietta Elizabeth Marshall
Analysis Key through KISS Level Three (Clauses) +

This key gives the KISS explanation for these sentences. The explanation using the expletive simply considers the "there" to be an expletive and the predicate noun in the KISS explanation to be the subject. 

1. There was only one thing (PN) to do [#1]. |

 
2. {In those days} there were hardly any doctors (PN). |

3. But there was a wicked twinkle (PN) {in Robin's eye}. |

4. There were a great many [NuA] lovely ladies (PN) {in beautiful dresses} [#2]. |

5. There is a bold, bad man (PN) {in these woods}. |

6. There were balls (PN) and parties (PN) and all sorts (PN) {of entertainments} 

{in honour} {of the King}. |

7. {Among Robin's men} there was a brave young man (PN) called David [#3] {of

Doncaster}. |

8. Suddenly there was a little stir (PN) {at the great west door}. |

9. Everywhere there was calm (PN) and peace (PN) [#4] {except in poor Robin's 

angry heart}. |

10. Far, far [#5] {over the seas} there is a country (PN) called Palestine [#6]. |


Notes
1. "To do" is an infinitive that functions as an adjective to "thing."
2. Note that this phrase can be explained as an adjective to "ladies" and/or as an adverb to "were."
3. "David of Doncaster" is a retained predicate noun after the passive gerundive "called." The active, full version would be They called him *to be* David of Doncaster."
4. This is not a subject/verb agreement error -- "calm" and "peace" are close enough to be one thing, as in "Bread and jelly is a good snack."
5. Note that these adverbs modify the prepositional phrase. [This is something that you probably will not find explained in most grammar textbooks.]
6. See Note # 3.