The Printable KISS Workbooks KISS Workbooks Anthology
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The "To" Problem
Ex # 2 Based on Black Beauty, by Anna Sewell
Analysis Key

 
1. I wish you to pay attention [#1] {to [#2] [OP what (DO) I am going to say {to you}] }. |
 

2. I should learn [DO what (DO) I wanted to know [#3] ] quickly| so [#4] 

now we will come {to business}. |
 

3. They were carrying young Gordon (DO) {to the churchyard} to bury him [#5]. |
 

4. My master went on to break me [#6] {to harness}; | there were more new 

things (PN) to wear [#7]. |
 

5. He was sure (PA) to go [#8] {to the railway station} just [Adv. to "to go" as 

the train was coming in]. |
 

6. It was a great treat (PN) {to us} to be turned out [#9] {into the home 

paddock or the old orchard}. |
 

7. I never had any one (DO), horse or man [#10], [Adj. to "one" that was 

kind (PA) {to me}], or [Adj. to "one" that I cared to please [#11] ]. |
 

8. {In the meantime} he was to get all the practice [#12] {in driving [#13] } [Adj.

to "practice" that could be given (P) {to him}]. |
 

9. We should do {to other people} [Adv. to "should do" as we should like 

[DO they should do {to us}]]. |
 

10. As soon [Adv. to the preceding "as" as I was old (PA) enough to eat 

grass [#14] ] my mother used to go out {to work} [#15] {in the daytime}, and

*used to* come back {in the evening}. |


Notes
Because this exercise functions on the "to" problem, and because "to" plus a verb is generally a verbal (infinitive), the following notes assume that, unless otherwise explained. 
1. "Attention" is the direct object of the infinitive "to pay," the subject of which is "you." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "wish."
2. At this point in their work, students will be more than normally confused by this. Some students will mark "to what" as the prepositional phrase, whereas others (correctly) will want to mark the "to" plus the whole clause as the prepositional phrase. The important thing is that they see a prepositional phrase here. Clauses as object of prepositions are introduced in KISS Level 2.2.4 - Advanced Questions about Prepositional Phrases, but are not an object of focus until KISS Level 3.1.2 - Subordinate Clauses.
3. "To know" functions as the direct object of "wanted." The preceding "what" functions as a subordinating conjunction and as the direct object of "to know."
4. See KISS Level 3.2.2 - "So" and "For" as Conjunctions. Alternatively here, "so" can be explained as an adverb.
5. "Him" is the direct object of the infinitive "to bury" which functions as an adverb to "were carrying."
6. "Me" is the direct object of the infinitive "to break." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb to "went." If one considers "went on" as a phrasal verb that means "continued," the infinitive "to break" would be its direct object.
7. The infinitive "to wear" functions as an adjective to "things."
8. "To go" functions as an adverb to "sure."
9. "Out" can be described as part of a phrasal verb (meaning "put") or as an adverb. The infinitive phrase functions as a delayed subject to "It" -- "To be turned out . . . was a great treat."
10.  "Horse" and "man" are appositives to "any one." (Note the now outdated division into two words.)
11. The infinitive "to please" functions as the direct object of "cared." Note that the preceding "that" functions simultaneously as a subordinating conjunction and as the direct object of "to please." In the preceding clause, the "that" functions simultaneously as a subordinating conjunction and as the subject of the clause.
12. "Practice" is the direct object of the infinitive "to get." The infinitive can be described as an adverb to "was." A more precise description would explain it as a retained direct object in an ellipsed infinitive construction -- "was *supposed* to get." For more on this, see KISS Level 5.7 - Passive Voice and Retained Complements.
13. "Driving" is a verbal (gerund) that functions as the object of the preposition.
14. "Grass" is the direct object of the infinitive "to eat" which functions as an adverb to the adverb "enough."
15. If one considers "work" as a place, then "to work" here is a prepositional phrase. But if one reads "to work" as performing an action, then "to work" is an infinitive that functions as an adverb (of purpose) to "used to go."