The Printable KISS Workbooks KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

KISS Level 2.2.2: Is It a Preposition?
Based on Black Beauty, by Anna Sewell
Analysis Key

1. I had not eaten {since the early morning}. |

2. There [#1] was a dreadful sound (PN) [Adv. (time) to "was" before we got

{into our stalls}]. |

3. {Since then} I have seen many horses [#2] much alarmed and restive {at the

sight or sound} {of a steam engine}. |

4. I never knew {till now} the utter misery (DO) {of a cab-horse's life}. |

5. Old Max told me (IO) all this (DO), [Adv. [#3] to "was" for it happened a

good while [NuA] ago]. |

6. He rides very little now, [Adv. (time & cause) to "very little" since the poor 

young master was killed (P) ]. |

7. I listened {to my rider's footsteps} [Adv. (time) to "listened" until they reached

the house (DO)]. |

8. Oh! [Inj] how I listened {for the sound} {of horse, or wheels, or footsteps}! |

9. I had not been {in a field} [Adv. (time) to "not" since I left poor Ginger (DO) 

{at Earlshall}]. |

10. {At last} {after a terrible struggle} I threw him (DO) off backward. |

11. The oak fell right [#4] {across the road} just {before us}. |

12. [Adv. (time) to "grew" After we had been out two or three times [NuA] together]

we grew quite friendly (PA). |

1. For an alternative explanation, see: KISS Level 2.1.3 - Expletives (Optional).
2. At this KISS level, expect students to explain "horses" as a direct object. At KISS Level Four, they will learn about ellipsed infinitives. In this case, "horses" is the subject of an ellipsed "be," and "alarmed" and "restive" function as predicate adjectives after the infinitive -- "I have seen horses be alarmed and restive." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "have seen."
3. See also KISS Level 3.2.2 - "So" and "For" as Conjunctions.
4. "Right" and "just" function as adverbs to the prepositional phrases that follow them.