Introduction to the KISS Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Identifying Nouns and Pronouns
From Alice in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll
Analysis Key

      The objective of this and the following exercise is to familiarize students with the words that typically function as pronouns. Because the grammar textbooks do not list all the words that can function as pronouns, this can be difficult because many words function both as pronouns and as adjectives. Making this distinction at this point in KISS Level 1.2 is not easy because students have not yet been introduced to adjectives. Level 1.6 returns to the question of pronouns after students have learned about adjectives and prepositional phrases.
     Some students will have problems with recognizing "who," "which," and "that" when they function as subjects in sentences such as "They saw the man who won the race." When they ask themselves the question "Who or what won the race?" they will see "man" as the answer to the question. This problem is also addressed in Level 1.6, after students have learned to identify complements and objects of prepositions, plus the rule that "The object of a preposition or the complement of one verb can never be the subject of another verb. This rule stops students from viewing "man" (or the object of any preposition) as the subject of "won," and leaves them with "who" as the only option.

     These sentences contain a few constructions that students are expected to get wrong. Be sure to remind them of that and focus their attention on how much they get right.

1. She (PRN) had succeeded {in bringing herself (PRN) [#1] down}

     {to her [#2] usual height}. |

2. "What (PRN; DO) do you (PRN) mean {by that (PRN)?" [ [#3]

     said the Caterpillar (N), sternly]. |

     "*You* (PRN) [#4]  (PRN) Explain yourself (PRN; DO)!" |

3. The judge (N), {by the way (N)}[#5], was the King (N; PN) | and

     he (PRN) wore his crown (N; DO) {over his great wig (N) }. |

4. She (PRN) waited {for some time (N)} {without hearing anything (PRN) 

     more [#6] }. |

5. Oh [Inj] , my poor little feet (N) [DirA], I (PRN) wonder [DO who

     (PRN) will put on your shoes (N; DO) and stockings (N; DO)

      {for you (PRN)} [#7] now, dears (N) [DirA] ]? |

6. "*You* (PRN) Let us (PRN) get [#8] {to the shore (N)}| and then

     I (PRN) 'll tell you (PRN; IO) my history (N; DO). |"

7. She (PRN) looked up, | but it (PRN) was all dark (PA) overhead; |

      {before her (PRN) } was another long passage (N) | and the White

     Rabbit (N) was still {in sight (N) }. |

8. "Mouse (N)  [DirA] dear (N)  [DirA] ! *You* (PRN) Do come back 

      again, | and we (PRN) won't talk {about cats (N), or dogs (N) either},

     [Adv. to "won't talk" if you (PRN) don't like them (PRN; DO) ]!" |

9. "That (PRN) 's the jury-box (N; PN)," [ [#3] thought Alice (N) ]; |

     "and those twelve creatures (N) [#9] ( [ [#10] some (PRN) were

     animals (N; PN) ] and [ some (PRN) were birds (N; PN) ]) I (PRN) 

     suppose [DO they (PRN) are the jurors (N; PN) ]." |

10. "It (PRN) matters a good deal (N) [NuA] {to me (PRN) } [#11] ,"

     [ [#3] said Alice (N) hastily ]; | "but I (PRN) 'm not looking {for eggs

      (N)}, [Adv. to "not" as it (PRN) happens], | and [Adv. to "shouldn't

      want" if I (PRN) was], I (PRN) shouldn't want yours (PRN; DO) |

     -- I (PRN) don't like them (PRN) raw [#12]." |

1. Expect students to underline "bringing" twice and then to be confused by its subject. It is a verbal (gerund) that functions as the object of the preposition "in." "Herself" functions as the direct object of "bringing."
2. "Her" her functions as an adjective to "usual height."
3. KISS explains this clause as an interjection. See KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
4. This understood "You" is the focus of KISS Level 2.1.1.
5. The prepositional phrase "by the way" can be explained as an adverb and/or as an interjection.
6. See Note # 1. In this case, "anything" functions as the direct object of the gerund "hearing," and the gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition "without." Grammarians will give a variety of explanations for "more." Note that it could simply replace "anything" -- "without hearing more." As a result, it could be considered an appositive for "anything." That is not a particularly good explanation. Better explanations involve ellipsis and become complex. The sentence means "anything more *than he had heard before*." 
7. The prepositional phrase "for you" can be explained either as an adverb or an indirect object to "will put on."
8. Expect students to be confused. "Get" is a verbal (an infinitive). "Us" is the subject of "get" and the infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "Let."
9. You will have a hard time finding an explanation for "creatures" in most grammar textbooks. KISS explains it as an (unusual) appositive to the following "they." See KISS Level 5.4 - Appositives.
10. Rhetoricians call constructions enclosed in parentheses like this "parenthetical constructions." Instead of adding that additional term, KISS considers them to be a form of interjections. Note that in this case "some" renames "creatures" and thus is also processed as an appositive to it.
11. This "to me" is an interesting prepositional phrase in that, although it could be considered as an adverb to "matters," it can also be seen as an indirect object after a verb that does not take a direct object.
12. There are at least two ways of explaining "them raw." One is to consider it an ellipsed infinitive phrase -- "them *to be* raw." In this perspective, "them" is the subject and "raw" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed infinitive "to be." The infinitive phrase is the direct object of "don't like." The second way is to consider "them" the direct object of "don't like," and to view "raw" as a post-positioned adjective to "them." For more on this, see KISS Level 5.5 - Post-Positioned Adjectives.