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Pronouns as Subjects
From Alice in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll
Analysis Key

     This exercise includes a rather complicated eleven sentence, which, of course, you can tell your students to ignore.

1. Oh [Inj], my poor little feet [DirA], I wonder [DO who will put on [#1] your 

shoes (DO) and stockings (DO) {for you} now, dears [DirA] ]? |
 

2. Soon her eye fell {on a little glass box} [Adj. to "box" that was lying {under

the table}]. |
 

3. She found herself (DO) {in a long, low hall}, [Adj. to "hall" which was lit (P) 

up {by a row} {of lamps} hanging [#2] {from the roof}]. |
 

4. The door led right {into a large kitchen}, [Adj. to "kitchen" which was full (PA)

{of smoke} {from one end} {to the other}]. |
 

5. She said it (DO) {to the Knave} {of Hearts}, [Adj. to "Knave of Hearts" who 

only bowed and smiled {in reply}]. |
 

6. Now I'm opening out {like the largest telescope} [Adj. to "telescope" that 

ever was]! |
 

7. This time [NuA] she found a little bottle (DO) {on it} [ [#3] ("which certainly

was not here before,"] [ [#4] said Alice)], | and tied (P) {'round the neck} {of the

bottle} was a paper label. |
 

8. She soon made out [#5] [DO that it was only a mouse (PN) [Adj. to

"mouse" that had slipped in {like herself}]]. |
 

9. {At last} the Mouse, [Adj. to "Mouse" who seemed to be [#6] a person

(PN) {of some authority} {among them}], called out. |
 

10. The only two creatures {in the kitchen} [Adj. to "creatures" that did not

sneeze] were the cook (PN) and a large cat (PN), [Adj. to "cat" which was

grinning {from ear} {to ear}]. |
 

11. {At this}, the whole pack {of cards} rose up {in the air} and came flying [#7]

down {upon her}; | she gave a little scream (DO), half [#8] {of fright} and half [#8] 

{of anger}, and tried to beat [#9] them (DO) off, and found herself lying [#10]

{on the bank}, {with her head} {in the lap} {of her sister}, [Adj. to "sister" who was 

gently brushing away some dead leaves (DO) [Adj. to "leaves" that had

fluttered down {from the trees} {upon her face}]]. |


Notes
1. Expect some students to mark "on your shoes and stockings" as a prepositional phrase. At this point, you might want to tell them that the sentence does not mean to put something "on your shoes and stockings." It means to put them "on your feet." I would expect this error until the students get to KISS Level 2.1.5 - Phrasal Verbs (Preposition? Or Part of the Verb?).
2. "Hanging" is a verbal (gerundive) that modifies "lamps." Expect students to be confused by this; it is the focus of KISS Level 2.1.6 - Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals. At his point, if students want to know, you might simply point out that "lamps hanging from the roof" does not make an acceptable sentence.
3. This clause can be described as an adjective to "bottle," but because it is in parentheses, it is what rhetoricians call a "parenthetical expression." In KISS, we call these interjections. Thus either explanation is acceptable in KISS.
4. KISS describes this clause as an interjection, but it could alternatively be explained as the main clause within the parentheses. See KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
5. "Made out" means "learned" or "discovered." For more on this, see KISS Level 2.1.5 - Phrasal Verbs (Preposition? Or Part of the Verb?).
6. The easiest way to explain "seemed to be" is to consider it a finite verb phrase. Alternatively, one could consider the "to be" a verbal (infinitive) that functions as an adverb to "seemed."
7. "Flying" can be described as a verbal (a gerundive) that modifies "pack," but the preferred KISS explanation is to consider "came flying" a palimpsest pattern with "came" written over "was." See KISS Level 2.1.4 - Palimpsest Patterns.
8. "Half" and "half" can be considered nouns used as adverbs, but perhaps a more meaningful description would be to consider them as appositives to "scream."
9. At this KISS Level, I would accept "tried to beat" as the verb phrase. When they get to KISS Level 2.1.6 - Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals, I would then prefer that students saw "to beat" as a verbal that functions as the direct object of "tried."
10. Most textbooks, if they discuss this construction at all, would explain "herself" as the direct object and "lying" as a verbal adjective that describes "herself." This explanation is acceptable in KISS, but at KISS Level Five, many students may prefer to see "herself lying" as a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "found." See KISS Level 5.8 - Noun Absolutes.