Introduction to the KISS Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Other Helping Verbs
from Heidi, by Johanna Spyri
Analysis Key

     Remember that the explanations as marked are considered acceptable at KISS Level One. In later levels, students will be given other options, as suggested in the notes.

1. Heidi kept on asking {in her excitement}. [#1] |
 

2. The old acquaintances immediately started gossiping {about their friends}

     {in the neighborhood}. [#2] |
 

3. Wouldn't you like to hear something (DO) {about it}? [#3] |
 

4. *You* Stop trembling. [#4] |
 

5. The footpath begins to go steeply and abruptly {up the Alps}. [#5] |
 

6. And now you want to hand over the child (DO) {to this terrible old man}. [#6] |
 

7. Grandmother would love to see you (DO). [#7] |
 

8. I hate to rob her (DO) {of this pleasure}. [#8] |
 

9. A small, white goat, called Snowhopper [#9] , kept up bleating {in the most

     piteous way}. [#10] |
 

10. Clara must try to stand longer this evening [NuA] {for me}. [#11] |


Notes
1. Some grammar books list "kept" and/or "kept on" among helping verbs. Alternatively, "asking" can be explained as a verbal (gerund) that functions as the direct object of "kept." "On" may be considered part of the finite verb phrase or as an adverb. For more on this see KISS Level 2.1.5 - Phrasal Verbs (Preposition? Or Part of the Verb?).
2. "Gossiping" can be explained as a gerund that functions as the direct object of "started."
3. "To hear" can be explained as a verbal (infinitive) that functions as the direct object of "would like." This explanation would make "something" the direct object of the infinitive.
4.  "Trembling" can be explained as a gerund that functions as the direct object of "Stop."
5. "To go" can be explained as a verbal (infinitive) that functions as the direct object of "begins."
6. "To hand over" means "to give," so the "over" can be considered as part of this infinitive, or it can be explained as an adverb. See KISS Level 2.1.5 - Phrasal Verbs (Preposition? Or Part of the Verb?). The infinitive phrase would be the direct object of "want," and "child" becomes the direct object of the infinitive.
7. "To see" can be explained as a verbal (infinitive) that functions as the direct object of "would love." "You" becomes the direct object of the infinitive.
8. "To rob" can be explained as a verbal (infinitive) that functions as the direct object of "hate." "Her" becomes the direct object of the infinitive.
9. "Snowhopper" is a retained predicate adjective after the passive gerundive "called." The gerundive phrase modifies "goat." See KISS Level 5.7 - Passive Voice and Retained Complements.
10. See Note 1. 
11. "To stand" can be explained as a verbal (infinitive) that functions as the direct object of "must try."