The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Palimpsest Patterns
from Heidi by Johanna Spyri
Analysis Key

1. Further back the old grey rocks rose high (PA) and sheer (PA). |

"rose" written over "were"
2. Her cheeks were burning red (PA) | and she lay peacefully {on her round and

chubby arms}. |

"were burning" written over "were"
3. Just then Heidi came running in. |
"came" written over "was" At KISS Level Four (Verbals), students will learn an alternative explanation -- "running" is a gerund that functions as a noun used as an adverb.
4. {In this healthy life} Heidi grew stronger (PA), and more sunburnt (PA) every day [NuA] . |
"grew" written over "became"
5. The shutter {over there} [#1] is hanging loose (PA). |
"is hanging" written over "is"
6. But Miss Deta [DirA], the child seems peculiar (PA) {for her age}. |
"seems" written over "is"
7. The doctor was sitting motionless (PA). |
"was sitting" written over "is"
8. She appeared frightened (PA). |
"appeared" written over "was"
9. The next day dawned cloudless (PA) and fair (PA). |
"dawned" written over "was"
10. She has to sit quiet (PA) {at her lessons}. |
"to sit" written over "to be"
11. Heidi turned pale (PA) {at that comment}. |
"turned" written over "became"

1. "Over there" may raise questions. Alternatively, it can be explained as an adverb in an ellipsed adjectival subordinate clause -- "The shutter *that is* over there . . . ."