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Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals:
Using the Noun Test
from Heidi by Johanna Spyri
Analysis Key

     Remember that the objective here is simply that students will underline the finite verbs twice, and not so underline the verbals. The explanations of the verbals are included for your information.

1. The little girl had given up [#1] following her companions [#2]. |

2. It will be very easy (PA) {for Peter to watch her} [#3] . |

3. He would make me pay [#4] {for it}. |

4. The thing [Adj. to "thing" she looked forward to most] was giving the soft

white rolls [#5] {to the grandmother}. |

5. {Near a table} a woman was seated (P), busy [#6] {with mending Peter's coat} [#7]. |

6. To be {at peace} {with God and men} makes one's heart feel light [#8] . |

7. Going {to the pasture} {with Peter and the goats} was always a pleasant 

experience (PN). |

8. Peter arrived {with his flock}, | but {without even answering the girls' friendly

greeting [#9] } , he disappeared {with a grim scowl}. |

9. The only remedy {for her} is to be restored [#10] {to her native mountain air}. |

10. You won't repent {of having told me [#11] }. |

11. It seemed [Adv. to "seemed" as if the grandfather had done nothing (DO) 

else all his life [NuA] {than nurse lame people [#12] }]. |


Notes
1. "Given up" is idiomatic for "stopped." It can also be explained as a phrasal verb. See KISS Level 2.1.5 - Phrasal Verbs (Preposition? Or Part of the Verb?).
2. "Companions" is the direct object of the verbal (gerund) "following." The gerund is the direct object of "had given up."
3. At this point in their work, most students will probably see "for Peter to watch her" as a prepositional phrase. That explanation makes "Peter" the subject and "her" the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "watch." The infinitive phrase functions as the object of the preposition 'for," and the prepositional phrase modifies "easy." Alternatively, the infinitive can be explained as a delayed subject -- "To watch her will be very easy for Peter." See KISS Level 5.6 - Delayed Subjects and Sentences.
4. "Me pay" answers  the question "would make what?" Thus it functions as a direct object, and "pay" cannot be a finite verb here. (This will become clearer for students when they learn the sentence test.) Technically, "me" is the subject of the infinitive "pay," and the infinitive phrase is the direct object of "would make.'
5. At KISS Level One, the subordinate clause will confuse some students, but they should be able to understand that the "thing" was not doing the "giving" but rather was the "giving." "Rolls" is the direct object of the verbal (gerund) "giving," and the verbal phrase functions as a predicate noun to "thing."
6. "Busy" is a post-positioned adjective to "woman." See KISS Level 5.5 - Post-Positioned Adjectives.
7. If they have been taught to identify all the prepositional phrases first, most students should have "with mending" or "with mending Peter's coat" in parentheses. Technically, "coat" is the direct object of the verbal (gerund) "mending," and the verbal phrase is the object of the preposition.
8.  Given the instructional material, most students should easily see that "To be" is the subject of "makes." If they ask "makes what," the meaningful answer is "one's heart feel light." That makes this phrase a direct object. {The sentence test will make this clearer.) " "Heart" is the subject and "light" is a predicate adjective (in a palimpsest pattern) to the verbal (infinitive) "feel."
9. "Greeting" is the direct object of the verbal (gerund) "answering." The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition.
10. "To be restored" is (equals) the "remedy." Thus this verbal (infinitive) functions as a predicate noun.
11. "Me" is the indirect object of the verbal (gerund) "having told." The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition.
12. "People" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "nurse." The infinitive phrase functions as the object of the preposition "than." The prepositional phrase modifies "else," which means "other" and functions as an adjective to "nothing."