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Untangling Embedded Subordinate Clauses
from Heidi, by Johanna Spyri
Analysis Key

1. Deta shook hands (DO) {with her companion} and stood still (PA) [#1]

     [Adv. to "stood" while Barbara approached the tiny, dark-brown mountain

     hut (DO), [Adj. to "hut" which lay {in a hollow} a few steps [#2] away 

     {from the path}]]. |

2. I prophesy [DO that you will learn it (DO) {in a very short time}, [Adv. 

      to "will learn" as a great many other children do [Adj. to "children" that are 

      {like you} and not {like Peter} [#3] ]]]. |

3. The people {in the village} called {to her} (IO) now more [Adv. to "more"

     than they had {on her way up} ], [Adv. to "more" because they all

     were wondering [DO where she had left the child (DO)]]. |

4. Clara was looking forward {to this visit}, and told Heidi (IO) so 

     much (DO) {about her dear grandmama} [Adv. to "so" that Heidi also 

     began to call [#4] her (DO) {by that name}, {to Miss Rottenmeier's

      disapproval}, [Adj. to "Miss Rottenmeier" who thought [DO that

     the child was not entitled (P) {to this intimacy}]]]. |

5. "I can bring the kittens (DO) {to your house}, [Adv. (condition) to 

      "can bring" if you tell me (IO) [DO where you live,"]] [ [#5] said 

      Heidi's new friend, [Adv. to "said" while he caressed the old cat (DO),

     [Adj. to "cat" who had lived {with him} many years [NuA] ]]]. |

6. Autumn and winter had passed, | and Heidi knew [DO that the

     time was coming [Adj. to "time" when Peter would go {up the Alp}

     {with his goats}, [Adv. to "would go" where [#6] the flowers were

     glistening {in the sunshine}] and [Adv. to "would go" *where* the 

     mountains were all afire (PA) ]]]. |

1. "Still" can be explained as a predicate adjective in a palimpsest pattern with "stood" written over "was." (See KISS Level 2.1.4 - Palimpsest Patterns.)  Alternatively, it can be explained as an adverb to "stood."
2. "Steps" is a Noun Used as an Adverb, but there is ambiguity in what it modifies--the hut or the hollow. If it modifies "hut," it is adverbial to "lay." If it modifies "hollow," it is in an ellipsed adjectival clause -- "a hollow *which was* a few steps away." Thus it modifies the "was" in the ellipsed clause, and the clause modifies "hollow."
3. Alternatively, the two "like" phrases can be described as predicate adjectives.
4. Alternatively, "to call" can be explained as an infinitive that functions as the direct object of "began."
5. KISS explains this clause as an interjection. For an explanation and alternative, see KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?]
6. Note how the two "where" clauses seem to modify a place "up the Alp." If a student suggested that they modify that prepositional phrase (as adjectives), I would praise the student for good thinking.