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The Witch in "Which"
Based on Heidi by Johanna Spyri
Analysis Key

1. There a few cottages lay scattered [#1] about, [Adj. to "cottages" {from the

furthest} {of which} a voice called out {to her} {through an open door}]. |

2. [Adv. to "awoke" and "roused" When the clock {from the old church tower}

struck one (DO) ], Sebastian awoke and roused his comrade (DO),

[Adj. [#2] which was no easy matter (PN)]. |

3. He generally invited Peter to stay [#3] {to supper} afterwards, [Adj. [#4]

which liberally rewarded the boy (DO) {for all his great exertions}]. |

4. [DO [#5] "That certainly is not too much (PN),"] the old lady said {with

a smile}, taking {out of her pocket} a big, round thaler [#6], [Adj. to "thaler" 

{on top} {of which} she laid twenty pennies (DO)]. |

5. A small, white goat, called Snowhopper [#7], kept up bleating [#8] {in

the most piteous way}, [Adj.  [#9] which induced Heidi to console it [#10] 

several times [NuA]]. |

6. [DO [#5] "You have enough (DO) now,"] he declared. | "[Adv. to

"won't be" If you pick them (DO) all to-day,] there won't be any left [#11] 

to-morrow." | Heidi admitted that (DO), [ [#12] {besides which} she had 

her apron already full [#13] ]. |

1. "Scattered" can be considered as part of the passive finite verb  phrase, or it can be explained as a gerundive that functions as a predicate adjective in a palimpsest pattern in which "lay" is written over "were."
2. The antecedent of this "which" is the verb "roused" -- "Rousing his comrade was no easy matter."
3. There are at least two ways to explain "Peter to stay." "Peter" can be considered the indirect object of "invited" and the subject of the infinitive "to stay." This option makes the infinitive phrase the direct object of "invited." People who do not like that explanation may want to consider "Peter" as the direct object and the infinitive as an adverb (where?) to "invited."
4. This "which" can be seen as referring to "supper," but some readers may feel that the invitation ("invited") is as important as the supper.
5. For an alternative explanation of the clause structure, see KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
6. "Thaler" is the direct object of the gerundive "taking," which modifies "lady."
7. "Snowhopper" is a retained predicate noun after the passive gerundive "called." (See KISS Level 5.7 - Passive Voice and Retained Complements.] The gerundive phrase modifies "goat."
8. "Bleating" is a gerund that functions as a direct object. "Up" can be considered part of the verb ("kept up" = "continued") or it can be seen as an adverb to "kept."
9. "Which" can easily be explained as having "way" as its antecedent, but was it the piteous way, or was it the continued bleating that induced Heidi? In other words, the finite verb phrase "kept up bleating" can also be seen as the antecedent of "which."
10. See Note 3.
11. "Any" can be explained as a predicate noun with "left" as a gerundive that modifies it. At  KISS Level 5.8, however, some people will prefer to see "any left" as a noun absolute that functions at the predicate noun. 
12. Technically this "which" refers to "that," but most readers will probably find this sentence initially confusing, particularly because "that" would be a typical subordinating conjunction after "admitted." Thus most readers will have to reprocess to see that although the "which" refers to "that," it meaningfully refers to "there won't be any left." 
13. The KISS explanation of "apron full" is to consider it an ellipsed infinitive construction -- "her apron *to be* full." That makes "apron" the subject and "full" the predicate adjective in the infinitive phrase, the phrase functioning as the direct object of "had." This is, however, a case in which some people might prefer the "objective complement" explanation. See the discussion of ellipsed infinitives in KISS Level Four.