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A Study of Ellipsed Infinitives
from Heidi by Johanna Spyri
Analysis Key

     Note that some these sentences sound fine with the "to be" included, but many of them do not. The ellipsed "to be" is normally simply assumed.

1. She is bright (PA) {for her five years} and keeps her eyes *to be* [#1] wide open. |

2. Overhanging rocks {on one side} made the cliff *to be* [#2] dangerous. |

3. They left the door *to be* [#3] only partly open. |

4. It always made Peter *to be* unhappy [#4] [ [#5] when Heidi did not come along]. |

5. Brigida found the old man *to be* busy [#6] {with putting a new beam [#7] } {along the wall}. |
 

6. I wonder [DO how you can keep the child *to be* warm [#8] {in winter}]. |
 

7. "You have made him *to be* angry [#9] !" [ [#10] said Heidi {with a furious look}]. |
 

8. "{Of course} you shall call me *to be* Clara [#11]." |
 

9. Miss Rottenmeier found it *to be* wiser [#12] now to stay [#13] {in the study} to

prevent further disturbances [#14] . |
 

10. The white one's name is Schwänli (PN) | and the brown one I call *to be* [#15] Bärli. |


Notes
1. "Eyes" is the subject and "open" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "keeps."
2.  "Cliff" is the subject and "dangerous" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "made."
3.  "Door" is the subject and "open" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "left."
4.  "Peter" is the subject and "unhappy" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "made."
5.  Although one could describe this "when" clause as adverbial to either "unhappy" or "made." it really functions as a delayed subject. It means "Heidi's not coming along always made Peter unhappy." See KISS Level 5.6 - Delayed Subjects and Sentences.
6.   "Man" is the subject and "busy" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "found."
7. "Beam" is the direct object of the gerund "putting" that functions as the object of "with."
8.   "Child" is the subject and "warm" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "can keep."
9.  "Him" is the subject and "angry" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "have made."
10. Although the quotation can be explained as the direct object of "said," KISS alternatively explains this clause as an interjection. See KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
11. "Me" is the subject and "Clara" is a predicate noun to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "shall call."
12. "It" is the subject and "wiser" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "found."
13. The infinitive "to stay" functions as a delayed subject to "it" -- "to stay in the study . . . [is] wiser." See KISS Level 5.6 - Delayed Subjects and Sentences.
14. "Disturbances" is the direct object of the infinitive "to prevent." This infinitive phrase functions as an adverb (of purpose) to "to stay."
15. This is a varied S/V/C pattern. (I call the brown one Bärli.)  "One" is the subject and "Bärli" is a predicate noun to the ellipsed "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "call."