The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Mixed Retained Complements 
Based on Heidi by Johanna Spyri
Analysis Key

1. [Adv. to "came" When he was made (P) master (RPN) [#1] ], he came 

home [NuA] {to the village} and married my sister (DO) Adelheid [#2]. |

When they made him master, . . . .
2. She is convinced (P) [RDO that an old Sesemann is wandering about

expiating some dreadful deed [#3] ]. |

Someone convinced her that old Sesemann . . . .
3. Tinette was told (P) to prepare Heidi [#4] {for her departure}. |
Someone told Tinette to prepare . . . .
4. The happy grandmama was told (P) [RDO that Heidi had suddenly

learned to read [#5] {with the utmost correctness}, most rare [#6] {with beginners}]. |

Someone told the happy grandmama that . . . .
5. The butler, hardly able to keep his countenance [#7] , was told (P) to

place [#8] the dish {on the table} and leave the room [#8]. |

Someone told the butler . . . to place . . . .
6. Here she was also given (P) her lessons (RDO). |
Here they also gave her her lessons.
7. {After that} the child was told (P) how (RDO) to accost the servants

and the governess [#9] ]. |

After that they told the child how . . . .
8. He was named (P) "Alm-Uncle" (RPN) [#1] [Adv. to "was named" 

when he moved up {to the Alm}]. |

The people named him "Alm-Uncle" . . . .
9. Heidi was puzzled (P) what to do [#10] next, | but having discovered

a bell [#11], she pulled it (DO) {with all her might}. |

What to do next puzzled Heidi, but . . . .
10. Often she could hardly repress her sobs (DO) and was obliged (P) to

make the strangest faces [#12] to keep herself [#13] {from crying [#14] out}. |


Notes
1. KISS explains the active voice versions of these as ellipsed infinitive phrases that function as direct objects. For example, in "they made him master," "him" is the subject and "master" is the predicate noun to an ellipsed "to be" --"made him *to be* master."
2. "Adelheid" is an appositive to "sister."
3. "Deed" is the direct object of the gerundive "expiating." The gerundive phrase modifies "Sesemann."
4. "Heidi" is the direct object of the infinitive "to prepare." The infinitive phrase functions as a retained direct object.
5. The infinitive to "read" functions as the direct object of "had learned."
6.  "Rare" is a post-positioned adjective in a rare "which" clause -- "*which was* most rare . . . ." This "which" refers to the entire "Heidi had suddenly learned to read with the utmost correctness." See the KISS Level 3.2.4 - "Tag" and Other Questions about Clauses.
7.  "Countenance" is the direct object of the infinitive "to keep." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb to "able," which is a post-positioned adjective to "butler."
8. "Dish" is the direct object of the infinitive "to place" and "room" is the direct object of the infinitive "to leave." The infinitives function as retained direct objects after the passive "was told."
9.  "Servants" and "governess" are direct objects of the infinitive "to accost." The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective to "how."
10. The infinitive "to do" functions as an adjective to "what." The phrase can be explained in at least three different ways: 1.)  as a delayed subject, 2.) as the object of an ellipsed preposition -- "*by* what to do next," or 3.) as a retained complement after the passive "was puzzled."
11. "Bell" is the direct object of the gerundive "having discovered." The gerundive phrase modifies "she."
12. "Faces" is the direct object of the infinitive "to make." The infinitive phrase can be seen as an adverb to "was obliged," but it can also be seen as a retained complement after the passive verb. [True, we would rarely say, "Something obliged her to make strange faces," but just because we do not use the active voice version does not mean that we cannot explain the passive form.]
13. "Herself" is the direct object of the infinitive "to keep." The infinitive functions as an adverb (of purpose) to "to make."
14. The gerund "crying" functions as the object of the preposition "from."