Introduction to the KISS Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Identifying Nouns and Pronouns
Based on "Perseus"
The Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales For My Children
Analysis Key

      Perseus (N) wondered {at that strange cloud (N) }, [Adv. (cause) [#1]

for there (PRN) [#2] was no other cloud (N, PN) all {round the sky (N) }]; |

and he (PRN) trembled [Adv. to "trembled" as it (PRN) touched the

cliff (N, DO) below [#3] ]. | And [Adv. to "broke" and "parted" as it (PRN) 

touched,] it (PRN) broke, and parted, | and {within it (PRN} }

appeared Pallas Athene (N), [Adv. to "appeared" as he (PRN) had seen

her (PRN, DO) {at Samos (N) } {in his dream (N) } ], and [#4] {beside her (PRN }

a young man (N) more light-limbed [#5] {than the stag (N) } [#6], [Adj. to "man"

whose (PRN) [#7] eyes (N) were {like sparks (N) } (PA) {of fire (N) }]. | {By

his side (N) } was a scimitar (N) {of diamond (N) }, all [#8] {of one clear 

precious stone (N) }, | and {on his feet (N) } were golden sandals (N), [Adj.

to "sandals" {from the heels (N) } {of which (PRN) } grew living wings (N) ]. |

1. See KISS Level 3.2.2 - "So" and "For" as Conjunctions.
2. For an alternative explanation, see KISS Level 2.1.3 - Expletives (Optional).
3. "Below" is a preposition with an ellipsed object ("it"). The prepositional phrase clearly modifies "cliff," even though its meaning is adverbial. This happens as a result of ellipsis. It means "the cliff *which was* below *it*." The adjectival clause is reduced to just the preposition.  [Note that most grammar textbooks never get near this type of construction.]
4. This "and" joins the two subjects of "appeared" -- "Pallas Athene" and "man."
5. "Light-limbed" is a Post-Positioned Adjective, a reduction of the adjectival clause -- "*who was* light-limbed." See KISS Level 5.5 - Post-Positioned Adjectives.
6. Alternatively, "than the stag" can be explained as an ellipsed adverbial clause -- "than the stag *is light-limbed*."
7. "Whose," like "his" in the next sentence, is a possessive pronoun that functions as an adjective (just as possessive nouns do).
8. "All" can be explained in at least two ways. For one, it can be explained as a pronoun that functions as an appositive to "diamond." Or it can be seen as an adverb ("completely") that functions as an adverb to the following prepositional phrase.