The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

The Logic of Subordinate  Clauses
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett
Analysis Key

     Students may ask about the functions of some words in the sentences. The following key provides answers to the specific directions plus the rest of the analysis. 

1. But just [#1] [Adv. (time) to "asked" before Martha went down-stairs [NuA] 

     {for the tea-tray}], Mary asked a question (DO). |

2. He was not working [Adv. (Space) to "not" where she had left him (DO)]. |

3. She spoke {to him} a little [NuA] stiffly [Adv. (C/E - cause) to "stiffly" because

     she felt rather shy (PA)]. |

4. She was so happy (PA) [Adv. (C/E - result) to "so" that she scarcely dared 

     to breathe [#2] ]. |

5. The time had come [Adj. (ID) to "time" when Mary had forgotten to 

     resent Martha's familiar talk [#3] ]. |

6. [Adv. (C/E - condition) to "more" If Martha had been a well-trained fine

      young lady's [#4] maid (PN)] she would have been more subservient 

     (PA) and respectful (PA). |

7. The table and chairs and plates looked [Adv. (C/E - manner) to "looked" 

     as if they had been hastily pushed (P) back]. |

In this case, the content of the "as if" clause presents a possible cause of how they looked.
8. She was afraid (PA) [Adv. (C/E - cause) to "afraid" that he would pick 

     up his tools (DO) and go away]. |

The "that" clause explains the cause of her fear.
9. The first man [Adj. (ID) to "man" who came in] was a large officer (PN). |

10. But [#5] [Adv. (C/E - concession) to "was" though several times [NuA] 

     she saw Ben Weatherstaff (DO) {at work}] he was too busy  (PA) to 

     look [#6] {at her} or was too surly (PA). |

The concession is that since she saw him several times, one would have expected him to look at her and talk.
11. She would always carry the key (DO) {with her} [Adv. (time) to "would

      carry" when she went out][Adv. (C/E - purpose) to "would carry" so 

     that [Adv. (C/E - condition) to "would be" if she ever should find the

      hidden door (DO)] she would be ready (PA)]. |

12. He understood [ID, DO what Colin felt] better  [Adv. (Comparison) 

      to "better" than Colin did himself [#7] ]. |

13. [Adv. (time) to "looked" After everything was neat (PA) and calm 

     (PA) and {in order} (PA) ] the nurse looked [Adv. (C/E - manner) 

      to "looked" as if she would very gladly slip away also]. |

Although the "as if" clause expresses "how" she looked, it also suggests the the primary cause of how she looked. Thus this example supports the validity of including clauses of manner under "cause/effect."

1. The adverb "just" modifies the entire "before" clause.
2. Grammarians don't seem to agree on whether or not "dared" is a "helping verb." Thus "dared to breathe" can be considered the finite verb phrase, or "dared" can be seen as the finite verb, and "to breathe" as a verbal (infinitive) that functions as the direct object of "dared."
3. "Talk" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to resent," and the infinitive phrase is the direct object of "had forgotten."
4. Note how this description is more a reflection on the lady whom Martha serves than it is on Martha.
5. Don't forget that you're not supposed to start a sentence with "but." ;)
6. The verbal (infinitive) "to look" functions as an adverb (of result) to "too," which modifies "busy."
7. "Himself" is an appositive to "Colin." See KISS Level 5.4.