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(Code and Color Key)

The Logic of Subordinate  Clauses
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett
Analysis Key

     Students may ask about the functions of some words in the sentences. The following key provides answers to the specific directions plus the rest of the analysis.

1.  But [Adv. (C/E - cause) to "not" because he kept breaking [#1] {into a 

      slow grin} now and then], Mary was not afraid (PA) to talk [#2] {to him}. |

2. {At that very moment} such a loud sound {of wailing [#3]} broke out {from the

      servants' quarters} [Adv. (C/E - result) to "such" that she clutched the young

      man's arm (DO) ]. |

3. Four good things had happened {to her}, {in fact} [#4] , [Adv. (time) to 

      "had happened" since she came {to Misselthwaite Manor}]. |

"Since" can also imply cause.
4. [Adv. (C/E - condition) to "not" So long as going [#5] {without food} 

     agrees {with them}] we need not disturb ourselves (DO). |

5. One time [NuA] they took him (DO) out [Adv. (place) to "took" where

     the roses is {by the fountain} [#6] ]. |

 [Martha is speaking, and the S/V error reflects her poor grammar.]
6. We can't help laughing [#7] nearly all the time [NuA] [Adj. (ID) to "time" 

     when we are together]. |

This one could be seen as either adjectival or adverbial (time) to "can't help laughing."
7. Those [Adj. (ID) to "Those" whom [#8] Mary saw] slunk or hurried 

     about {with ashy and scared faces}. |

8. He looked {at the plump little scarlet-waistcoated bird} [Adv. (C/E - manner) 

      to "looked" as if he were [#9] both proud (PA) and fond (PA) {of him}]. |

Does his pride and fondness cause the nature of his "look"?
9. She stood {in the corridor} and could hear the crying (DO) quite plainly

      [Adv. (C/E - concession) to "could hear" though it was not loud (PA)]. |

10. He would not have stirred {for the world}, [Adv. (C/E - purpose) to

       "not" lest his robin should start away]. |

11. Her patient was sure (PA) [Adv. (C/E - cause) to "sure" that open

     windows gave people (IO) cold (DO)]. |

To the extent that we can see this clause as a cause/effect relationship, the implication is that his belief that open windows give people colds makes him sure. In other words, it is a causal relationship, but it is circular reasoning.
12. They saw more rooms (DO) and made more discoveries (DO)

     [Adv. (Comparison) to "more" than Mary had made {on her first pilgrimage}]. |

13. Have fun (and some aspirin) with this one:
And the thought [Adj. (ID) to "thought" which stimulated him (DO) more

     than any other * ] was this imagining (PN)  [(ID, DO of "imagining") what

     his father would look like [Adv. (time) to "would look like" when he 

     saw [(ID, DO) that he had a son (DO) [Adj. (ID) to "son" who 

     was as straight (PA) and strong (PA) as other fathers' sons *]]]]. |

* "Than any other" (and later "as other fathers' sons" can be viewed as prepositional phrases or as ellipsed subordinate clauses (comparison) -- "than any other *thought stimulated him*" and "as other fathers' sons *were straight and strong*."

1. Alternatively, "breaking" can be explained as a gerund that functions as the direct object of the finite verb "kept."
2. The infinitive "to talk" functions as an adverb to the predicate adjective "afraid."
3. "Wailing" is a gerund.
4. "In fact" can be viewed as an adverb or as an interjection.
5. "Going" is a gerund.
6. Alternatively, "by the fountain" can be viewed as adverbial to "out," and thus not part of the subordinate clause.
7. Alternatively, "laughing" can be explained as a gerund that functions as the direct object of the finite verb "can't help."
8. "Whom" functions as both subordinating conjunction and as the direct object of "saw."
9. "Were" is in the subjunctive mood. See KISS Level 2.1.7 - The KISS Perspective on the Subjunctive Mood.
10. "Imagining" is a gerund.