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Pronouns as Predicate Nouns
Adapted from
English for Use -- Book Three
Analysis Key

     In formal styles, predicate nouns are "equal" to the subject, not only in number, but also in case. Note that the function of the pronoun within its clause determines which case to use. Ultimately, therefore, the "right" answers here depend on the students' ability to unconsciously (or consciously) determine clause boundaries. Finally, note that "formal" usage often differs from casual. The degree of casualness differs among speakers, but I have put a "*" before sentences that, in informal speech, I would probably use the objective case.

1. Do you think [DO it was she (PN) [ [#1] who said it (DO)]]? |

2. It was we (PN) [ [#1] who did it (DO)]. |

* 3. Would you go [Adv. to "would go" if you were I (PN) ] ? |

4. Was it he (PN) [#2] [ [#1] who told you (IO) ]? |

* 5. Would you go {to camp} [Adv. to "would go" if you were she (PN) ] ? |

6. It is they (PN) [ [#1] whom [#3] we fear]. |

7. It was he (PN) [ [#1] who just passed the house (DO) ]. |

* 8. Who is it (PN)? | It is I (PN) . |

9. [Adv. to "not" If I had been she (PN) ], I would not have done it (DO). |

* 10. [Adv. to "would do" If you were we (PN) ] what (DO) would you do? |

* 11. He said [DO it was I (PN) ] . |

12. What (DO) would you do [Adv. to "would do" if you were they (PN) ] ? |

13. I thought [DO you said [DO it was he (PN) ]] . |

14. Was it he (PN) or she (PN) [ [#1] who did it (DO) ]? |

* 15. It was we (PN) [ [#1] {to whom} they spoke ]. |

1. This clause functions as a delayed subject -- "Who said it was she." See KISS Level 5.6 - Delayed Subjects and Sentences.
2. In questions like this, we typically put the direct object first, as in "Whom did he see?" Because the subject and predicate noun are the same thing, we can consider either position the subject. (Some grammarians would probably disagree with the preceding.)
3. "Whom" functions simultaneously as the subordinating conjunction and the direct object of "fear."