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KISS Grammar 

Pronouns: The Gender Question
Adapted from: Growth in English: Eighth Year

     This is a question of political, not grammatical correctness. In general, the answers below are the politically correct ones. Different books will give you different rules for handling this problem. In Children's Writing and Reading, Katharine Perera claimed that using the plural pronoun with a singular antecedent "is probably the preferred solution, although it means using plural pronouns to refer to a singular [antecedent]." According to her:

Aware of this gap in the pronoun system, the Equal Opportunities Commission commissioned Dr. David Firnberg to create a new pronoun. He has suggested two possibilities: ist, ist, ists; and hey, hem, heir, heirs, e.g.:
. . . If anyone has lost heir ticket hey should report to a stewardess who will do her best to help hem.
Despite the clear need for such an item, there is no sign of its being adopted.
(Basil Blackwell, 1984, 38-39)
You might enjoy sharing this information with your students. As for her own book, Perera notes, "Whenever possible I have avoided the issue by using a plural noun and they. Sometimes, however, a singular form is essential. On these occasions, I have adopted the convention of referring to teachers as she and the pupil as he -- naturally, this should not be taken to mean that male teachers and female pupils are discounted." (14)

Analysis Key

1. Anyone can waste his time (DO). |

Anyone can waste his or her time.
or: Anyone can waste time.
2. Everybody ought to do her part (DO). |
Everybody ought to do her or his part.
3. Neither Tom nor Beverly is doing his best [#1]. |
Neither Tom nor Beverly is doing his or her best.
or: Tom and Beverly are not doing their best.
4. Each {of them} is going to have his picture taken [#2]. |
Each of them is going to have his or her picture taken.
or: Each of them is going to have a picture taken.
or: They are all going to have their pictures taken.
5. A person ought to be careful (PA) {of her speech}. |
A person ought to be careful of his or her speech.
or: People ought to be careful of their speech.
6. Nobody {in those games} exerts himself (DO). |
Nobody in those games exerts him or herself.
or: The players in those games do not exert themselves.
7. Someone left her coat (DO) {on the floor}. |
Someone left his or her coat on the floor.
or: Someone left a coat on the floor.
8. Who wants to read her story (DO) [#3] {to the class}? |
Who wants to read her or his story to the class?
9. Will no one lend me (IO) his pencil (DO)? |
Will no one lend me his or her pencil?
or: Will no one lend me a pencil?
10. Neither Sam nor Mary left his dirty cups (DO) {in the sink}. |
Neither Sam nor Mary left dirty cups in the sink.

Notes
1. "Best" could be considered a pronoun that functions as the direct object, or it can be explained as an adjective that modifies the ellipsed direct object -- "work."
2. "Taken" can be considered a verbal (gerundive) that modifies the direct object "picture." However the preferred KISS explanation is to view "picture taken" as a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "is going to have." See KISS Level 5.8 - Noun Absolutes.
3. "Story" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to read." The infinitive phrase is the direct object of "wants." (At this KISS Level, I would also simply accept "wants to read" as the finite verb phrase.