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KISS Grammar 

Pronouns: The Gender Question

     This is a question of political, not grammatical correctness. In general, the answers below are the politically correct ones. Different books will give you different rules for handling this problem. In Children's Writing and Reading, Katharine Perera claimed that using the plural pronoun with a singular antecedent "is probably the preferred solution, although it means using plural pronouns to refer to a singular [antecedent]." According to her:

Aware of this gap in the pronoun system, the Equal Opportunities Commission commissioned Dr. David Firnberg to create a new pronoun. He has suggested two possibilities: ist, ist, ists; and hey, hem, heir, heirs, e.g.:
. . . If anyone has lost heir ticket hey should report to a stewardess who will do her best to help hem.
Despite the clear need for such an item, there is no sign of its being adopted.
(Basil Blackwell, 1984, 38-39)
You might enjoy sharing this information with your students. As for her own book, Perera notes, "Whenever possible I have avoided the issue by using a plural noun and they. Sometimes, however, a singular form is essential. On these occasions, I have adopted the convention of referring to teachers as she and the pupil as he -- naturally, this should not be taken to mean that male teachers and female pupils are discounted." (14)

Analysis Key

1. Nobody cleaned his desk (DO) neatly enough. |

Nobody cleaned their desk neatly enough.
or: Nobody cleaned her or his desk neatly enough.
or: Nobody cleaned his or her desk neatly enough.
2. Who believes [DO his story is really good (PA)]? |
Who believes his or her story is really good?
or: Who believes their story is really good?
3. Someone dropped his paper (DO) {on the sidewalk}. |
Someone dropped a paper on the sidewalk.
or: Someone dropped their paper on the sidewalk.
or: Someone dropped her or his paper on the sidewalk.
4. Will anyone show me (IO) his map (DO)? |
Will anyone show me a map?
or: Will anyone show me their map?
or: Will anyone show his or her map?
5. Can anybody let me use his ruler [#1] ? |
Can anybody let me use their ruler?
or: Can anybody let me use her or his  ruler?
or: Can anybody let me use a ruler?
6. Everybody can make up [#2] her own rules (DO). |
Everybody can make up rules.
or: Everybody can make up their own rules.
or: People can make up their own rules.
or: Everybody can make up his or her own rules.
7. Neither Sally nor Bob understands his job (DO). |
Neither Sally nor Bob understands their jobs.
or: Neither Sally nor Bob understands her or his job.
8. Every student will read his own story (DO) {to the class}. |
Students will read their own story to the class.
or: Every student will read their own story to the class.
or: Every student will read their own story to the class.
or: Every student will read her or his own story to the class.
9. A person should mind his manners (DO). |
People should mind their manners.
or: A person should mind his manners.
10. Neither Bill nor Sarah finished his homework (DO). |
Bill and Sarah did not finish their homework.
or: Neither Bill nor Sarah finished their homework.
or: Neither Bill nor Sarah finished his or her homework.

Notes
1. "Me" is the subject, and "ruler" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "let." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "let."
2. "Can make up" is a phrasal verb (meaning "can invent"). See KISS Level 2.1.5 - Phrasal Verbs (Preposition? Or Part of the Verb?).