The Printable KISS Workbooks The KISS Home Page
(Code and Color Key)

L1.1 # 16
Antecedents of Pronouns
Analysis Key

1. Frank’s kite flew so high (PA) [Adv. to "so" that he could scarcely

see it (DO)]. |

The antecedent of "he" is "Frank's."
The antecedent of "it" is "kite."
2. “Children [DirA],” [ [#1] said Aunt Sue], “you must be quiet (PA)

{at your play}, | or I shall send you (DO) {to bed}.” |

The antecedent of "you," "your," and "you" is "Children."
The antecedent of "I" is "Aunt Sue."
3. King Midas valued his royal crown (DO) [Adv. to "valued" because it

was made (P) {of gold}]. |

The antecedent of "his" is "King Midas."
The antecedent of "it" is "crown."
4. The sun was shining {on the sea},

        Shining [#2] {with all his might}; |

    He did his very best (DO) to make

        The billows smooth and bright [#3]. |

The antecedent of "his" is "sun."
The antecedent of "He" and "his"  is "sun."
5. The wind blew {with all his strength} a cold blast (DO); | but the fiercer [#4]

he blew, [Adv. (result) to "the fiercer" the tighter [#4] did the man clasp his

cloak (DO) {around him}]. |

The antecedent of "his" is "wind."
The antecedent of "he" is "wind."
The antecedent of the second "his" is "man."
The antecedent of "him" is "man."
6. “What a selfish dog (PN) you are!” [ [#1] said the ox]; | you can not eat

the hay (DO) yourself [#5], | nor will you let me eat it [#6] .” |

The antecedent of "you" throughout the text is "dog."
The antecedent of "yourself" is the "you" that functions as the subject of this clause.
The antecedent of "me" is "ox."
The antecedent of "it" is "hay."
7. The herald bade Cinderella sit [#7] down {on a stool} {in the kitchen}, and

himself [#8] put the slipper (DO) {on her pretty little foot}, [Adj. to "foot"

which it fitted exactly]. |

 
The antecedent of "himself" is "herald."
The antecedent of "her" is "Cinderella."
The antecedent of "which" is "foot." Note how this "which" functions simultaneously as the subordinating conjunction and the direct object of "fitted." 
The antecedent of "it" is "slipper."

Notes
1. KISS explains this clause as an interjection. For more on this question, see KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
2. "Shining" is a verbal (gerundive) that modifies "Sun."
3. "Smooth" and "bright" are predicate adjectives after an ellipsed infinitive, the subject of which is "Billows" -- "Billows *to be* smooth and bright." This infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the infinitive "to make." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb of purpose to "did."
4. "The" makes the adjective a noun, which is here functioning as an adverb to "blew." "The tighter" then functions as an adverb that makes an adverbial clause to "the fiercer." Note the similarity to the "as . . . as" and "more ... than" constructions.
5. "Yourself" is an appositive to "you." See KISS Level 5.4 - Appositives.
6. "Me" is the subject and "it" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to eat." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "will let."
7.  "Cinderella" is the subject of the infinitive "sit." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "bade."
8. "Himself" is an appositive to "herald." Note how it is used here to make the herald (and not Cinderella) the subject of "put."