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(Code and Color Key)

Delayed Sentences
from The Master of Ballantrae by Robert Louis Stevenson
Analysis Key

1. It was {during this time} [ [#1] that I perceived most clearly the

effect (DO) {of manner}, and was led (P) to lament most deeply the plainness [#2] 

{of my own}]. |

During this time I perceived most clearly the effect of manner, and was led to lament most deeply the plainness of my own.
2. He had some design (DO) {of a fortune} {in the French Indies}, [ [#3] as the 

Chevalier wrote me (IO)]; | and it was the sum required [#4] {for this} [ [#5] 

that he came seeking [#6]  ]. |

He had some design of a fortune in the French Indies, as the Chevalier wrote me; and he came seeking the sum required for this.
3. It was {to this temper} [ [#7] that he owed the felicity (DO) {of his later days}]. |
To this temper he owed the felicity of his later days.
4. It chanced [ [#7] that Mrs. Henry was that day [NuA] ailing (PA) and

querulous (PA)]. |

Mrs. Henry was that day ailing and querulous.
5. It would be Alexander (PN) [ [#7] he was seeking], | and my lady knew 

it (DO) well. |

He was seeking Alexander, and my lady knew it well.

Notes
1. We could probably consider this clause as modifying "time" by itself, but as the version below it indicates, it fits the pattern of a delayed sentence.
2. "Plainness" is the direct object of the infinitive "to lament." The infinitive phrase functions as the retained direct object after the passive "was led." (The active voice version would be "Something led me to lament . . ."
3.  This is a case that is rarely discussed in  grammar textbooks. Although at first glance the clause may seem to be adverbial, it functions more as an interjection. Note that the main clause is, in terms of meaning, the direct object of "wrote." Thus this construction is comparable to the that explained in KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
4.  "Sum" can be considered a predicate noun and "required" a gerundive that modifies it. Some people, however, will prefer to see "sum required" as a noun absolute that functions as the predicate noun. See KISS Level 5.8 - Noun Absolutes.
5.  As the version immediately below this indicates, this clause functions as a delayed sentence.
6. Alternatively, "seeking" could be explained either as a gerundive that modifies "he," or as a gerund that functions as an adverb. The preferred KISS explanation, however, is to simply see it as a palimpsest pattern. See KISS Level 2.1.4 - Palimpsest Patterns.
7. Delayed Sentence