Introduction to the KISS Workbooks ToC
(Code and Color Key)

Combining Main Clauses with
Colons, Dashes, and Semicolons
-- Exercise #1
Analysis Key

Note: For separating main clauses, dashes and colons have the same implications. The colon tends to be used more in formal writing.

1. Tom walked home [NuA]. | It was a long walk (PN), | but he enjoyed 

     it (DO). |

Tom walked home--it was a long walk, but he enjoyed it.
The second two main clauses add additional information. Note that the "but" includes a contrast between his enjoying it and what we might expect.
2. Fridays are boring (PA). | Saturdays are fun (PA). | 
Fridays are boring; Saturdays are fun.
The semicolon would emphasize the contrast.
3. Flowers are pretty (PA). | I especially like roses (DO). |
Flowers are pretty--I especially like roses.
A dash or colon suggests that the second main clause adds information to the first.
4. Pickup trucks are useful (PA). | They can carry anything (DO) 

     {from mulch} {to furniture}. |

Pickup trucks are useful: they can carry anything from mulch to furniture.
The second main clause explains "useful."
5. Kara likes to play (DO) baseball [#1] {with the boys}. | Sarah prefers 

     shopping (DO) [#2] {at the mall}. |

Kara likes to play baseball with the boys; Sarah prefers shopping at the mall.
The semicolon emphasizes the difference in the women's preferences.
6. The Mississippi River is full (PA) {of fish}. | Sunfish, bass, pike, and 

     especially [#3] catfish can be found (P) {in it}. |

The Mississippi River is full of fish--sunfish, bass, pike, and especially catfish can be found in it.
The second main clause gives more information about the first.
7. Alfred pretended to be (DO) sick [#4] [Adv. (purpose) so he could stay 

     home [NuA] and watch the World Series (DO)]. | Bob was really ill (PA). |

Alfred pretended to be sick so he could stay home and watch the World Series; Bob was really ill.
The contrast between false and real is emphasized by the semicolon.
8. The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe is a funny book (PN). | A lot 

     {of strange and amusing creatures} are {in it}. |

The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe is a funny book--a lot of strange and amusing creatures are in it.
The second main clause explains "funny."
9. The new Harry Potter book was an instant success (PN). | It is almost 

     impossible (PA) to find it [#5] {in the stores}. |

The new Harry Potter book was an instant success--it is almost impossible to find it in the stores.
The degree of success is emphasized by the second main clause.
10. We {at McDonald's} have introduced three new premium salads (DO). | 

     *You* Let us feed you [#6] tonight [NuA]. |

We at McDonald's have introduced three new premium salads--let us feed you tonight.
In addition to the pun, the second main clause explains the purpose of the salads.

Notes
1. "Baseball" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to play." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "likes."
2. "Shopping" is a verbal (a gerund).
3. This "especially" raises some interesting questions. Dictionaries usually consider it an adverb. To see it as such here, it singles out one of the compound subjects as related to "can be found."
4. "Sick" is a predicate adjective after the infinitive "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "pretended."
5. "It" is the direct object of the infinitive "to find," and the infinitive phrase functions as a delayed subject. See KISS Level 5.6 - Delayed Subjects and Sentences.
6. "Us" is the subject, and "you" is an indirect object to the verbal (infinitive) "feed." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "Let."