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(Code and Color Key)

from Carrie's War by Nina Bawden # 3
(1973 Victor Gollancz London pages 124 - 125.)
Analysis Key

     Carrie’s head seemed to spin {like a top}. | So many thoughts twisting [#1] 

round, it made her quite giddy [#2]. | Tired [#2], too: | she lay awake {at night}

thinking [#3], and came down several mornings [NuA] so pale (PA) [#4] [Adv.

to "so" that Auntie Lou wanted to go [#5] {to the chemist} and buy her a 

tonic [#5].] |

     “*That is a* Waste (PN) {of good money},” [ [#6] Mr Evans said.] | 

“Stewing [#7] indoors, that’s the trouble (PN). | Bit [#7] {of exercise and fresh air},

that’s all (PN) [Adj. to "all" you need,] girl [DirA]! | *You* Get your bowels

moving [#8] . . ." | *He was* [#9] Speaking crossly and rudely [Adv. to "was 

speaking" although Carrie had only been stewing indoors [Adv. to "had been

stewing" because she had been helping him (IO) {in the shop}!]] | His 

unfairness gave her (IO) something else (DO) to brood [#10] over. | Mr 

Evans was unfair (PA). | Life was unfair (PA). | Poor Hepzibah and poor

Mister Johnny. | [#11] Poor Carrie and Nick, having to live [#12] here {with this rude, unfair man} {for the rest} {of 

the war}. | { For the rest} {of their lives}, probably . . . |  [#5]

Note that British usage does not put a period after "Mr".

1. "Thoughts twisting" is a noun absolute. It functions as an appositive to "it." (See "Appositive or Subject.") Note that the sentence means "So many thoughts twisting round made her quite giddy." If it had been written that way, we would probably consider "thoughts" as the subject, "made" as the verb, and "twisting" as a gerundive modifying "thoughts." As it is, the comma after "round," closes the "thoughts twisting" phrase, and the "it" then functions as the subject of "made."
2. "Giddy" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed infinitive "to be." "Her" is the subject of that infinitive, and the infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "made." The following sentence begins with a fragment, "Tired, too" in which "tired" will almost certainly be processed by most readers as another predicate adjective, parallel to "giddy,"  to the ellipsed infinitive. See also: "Language as a Stream of Meaning."  (I have never seen an example or explanation of this in a grammar book, but it is perfectly acceptable.) Note that what follows the colon is an explanation of why she is tired.
3. "Thinking" is a gerundive that modifies "she."
4. Here we have a palimpsest pattern, with "came" written over "was."
5. At KISS Level Two, "wanted to go" can also be accepted as the finite verb. At Level Four, students will learn to separate the infinitive "to go" as the direct object of  "wanted." Note that "buy" is not a finite verb here -- one would not say "Auntie Lou buy her a tonic." The preceding "and" joins the infinitives  "to go" and "*to* buy." "Her" is the indirect object, and "tonic" is the direct object of the infinitive.
6. Traditional grammars would consider "*That is a* Waste of good money" as the subordinate clause, functioning as the direct object of "said." But traditional grammars lack a dynamic theory of how the brain processes language. The KISS psycholinguistic model suggests that the brain will process the first S/V/C pattern that it hits as the main one (unless that pattern is preceded by a subordinating conjunction). Thus KISS explains "*That is a* Waste of good money" as the main clause and simply considers "Mr Evans said" as an interjection. Most grammarians and linguists who have seen it object to that explanation, but most grammarians and linguists rarely look at how the brain processes the larger syntactic units such as clauses. The KISS explanation, among other things, clearly distinguishes the simpler, less mature "Mr Evans said '*That is a* Waste of good money'." from the later developing  "'*That is a* Waste of good money', Mr Evans said."
7. Like "thoughts twisting," "stewing" is an appositive. "Stewing," however, is a gerund, and it is in apposition to the following subject, "that." In the following sentence, the simple noun "Bit" (or, if you prefer, the nouns "Bit" and "air") function(s) in the same way.
8. "Bowels moving" is best explained as a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "get." Most grammarians and linguists do not like this explanation, preferring to consider "bowels" as the direct object and "moving" as a participle that modifies it. [These grammarians and linguists also dislike the KISS term "gerundive," and prefer instead to use the term "participle."] Remember, however, that most of these linguists and grammarians are not interested in what sentences mean. From the KISS perspective, the sentence does not mean "get your bowels."
9. This sentence is a fragment, the appropriateness of which is debatable. In its favor, one could say that it reflects Carrie's thought process. She is focussed on Mr. Evans, and thus this is how she would think. From the readers' perspective, however, it may be confusing. Readers will tend to read "Speaking" as a gerundive and thus expect it to chunk to something later in the sentence -- and it does not.
10. The infinitive "to brood" functions as an adjective to "something else."
11. This, and the two "sentences" that follow it, are acceptable idiomatic fragments. Some teachers are out to eliminate fragments wherever they find them, and the last fragment could have been connected to the preceding one -- ". . . . for the rest of the war, and probably for the rest of their lives." It is, however, more emphatic (and completely understandable) as a fragment. Not all fragments are bad.
12.  "Having to live" is a gerundive to "Carrie" and "Nick." In this case, of course, the gerundive has a strong adverbial function because it indicates why they were "poor."