The KISS Grammar Workbooks Return to Ouida
(Code and Color Key)

From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida
Analysis Key

1. [Adv. to "was grateful and content" Though he was often very hungry

(PA) indeed [Adv. to "was hungry" when he lay down {at night}]]; [Adv. 

to "was grateful and content" though he had to work {in the heats} {of 

summer noons} and {*in* the rasping chills} {of winter dawns}]; [Adv. to "was 

grateful and content" though his feet were often tender (PA) {with wounds}

{from the sharp edges} {of the jagged pavement}]; [Adv. to "was grateful and 

content" though he had to perform tasks (DO) {beyond his strength} 

and {against his nature}], yet he was grateful (PA) and content (PA): |

he did his duty (DO) {with each day}, | and the eyes [Adj. to "eyes" that

he loved] smiled down {on him}. | It was sufficient (PA) {for Patrasche}. |

Three semicolons separate four "though" clauses of concession--reasons why he should not be "grateful" and "content." A comma, dash, and "yet" very emphatically separate these from the main main clause---"he was grateful and content." The colon then follows the primary idea (in the main main clause) with two main clauses that explain both how and why he was content.

2. And {on their return} Patrasche would shake himself free [#1] {of his 

harness} {with a bay} {of glee}, | and Nello would recount {with pride} the

doings (DO) {of the day}; | and they would all go in together {to their meal}

{of rye bread and milk or soup}, and would see the shadows lengthen [#2

{over the great plain}, and see the twilight veil the fair cathedral spire [#3] ; and

then lie down together to sleep [#4] peacefully [Adv. to "to sleep" and/or "lie" 

while the old man said a prayer (DO)]. |

Are not the first two main clauses separated by a comma plus "and" because they describe what Patrasche and Nello did separately? The third main clause appears to be separated from the first two by a semicolon because it explains what they did together. The second semicolon (after "spire") is unusual in that it separates compound verbs, perhaps to distinguish what they did during the evening from their preparations for sleep.

1. "Himself" is the subject, and "free" is a predicate adjective to the ellipsed infinitive (*to be*). The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "would shake." [Note that this is not the traditional explanation. Most traditional grammars would consider "free" to be an "objective complement."
2. "Shadows" is the subject of the infinitive "lengthen." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "would see."
3.  "Twilight" is the subject, and "spire" is the direct object, of the infinitive "veil." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "see."
4. The infinitive "to sleep" functions as an adverb to "lie."