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The Antecedents of Pronouns
From "The Happy Prince," by Oscar Wilde
Analysis Key

This exercise is long, and you may want to have the students skip the analysis of prepositional phrases and S/V/C patterns and just focus on the antecedents of pronouns.

1. "I am glad (PA) [Adv. to "glad" there is someone (PN) {in the world}

[Adj. to "someone" who is quite happy (PA),"]] [ [#1] muttered a disappointed

man [Adv. to "muttered" as he gazed {at the wonderful statue}.]] |

The antecedent of "who" is "someone."
The antecedent of "he" is "man."
2.  "He looks just {like an angel}," [ [#1] said the Charity Children [Adv. to

"said" as they came {out of the cathedral} {in their bright scarlet cloaks and their

clean white pinafores}.]] |

Out of context, there is no antecedent for "He."
The antecedent of "they," "their," and "their" is "Charity Children."
3. "Will you come away {with me}?" [ [#1] he said finally {to her}]; | but 

the Reed shook her head (DO), | [#2] she was so attached (P) {to her home}. |

The antecedent of "he" is "me."
The "antecedent" of the first "her" is "you."
The antecedent of the second "her" is "Reed."
The antecedent of "she" and the following "her" is "Reed."
4. My courtiers called me the Happy Prince [#3], | and happy (PA)

indeed I was, [Adv. to "was" if pleasure be [#4] happiness (PN)]. | So I 

lived, | and so I died. | And now [ [#5] that I am dead (PA)] they have

set me (DO) up here so high [Adv. to "so" that I can see all the ugliness (DO)

and all the misery (DO) {of my city}], | and [Adv. to "cannot choose" though

my heart is made (P) {of lead}] yet I cannot chose {but weep [#6] } . |

Out of context, the "antecedent" of "My" and  "me" is easily understood as the "Happy Prince."
The antecedent of "I" throughout is the Happy Prince.
The antecedent of "they" is "courtiers."
The antecedent of "me" and "my" is "I."
5. The King is there himself [#7] {in his painted coffin}. |
The antecedent of "himself" and "his" is "King." "Himself" is an appositive to "King."
6. Last summer [NuA], [ [#8] when I was staying {on the river}], there were

two rude boys (PN), the miller's sons [#9], [Adj. to "boys" who were always

throwing stones (DO) {at me}]. | They never hit me (DO), {of course} [#10] ;

| we swallows [#11] fly far too well {for that}, | and besides, I come {of a 

family} famous [#12] {for its agility}; | but still, it was a mark (PN) {of disrespect}. |

The antecedent of "who" is "boys."
The antecedent of "me" is "I."
The antecedent of "They" is "boys."
The "antecedent" of "we" is "swallows."
The antecedent of "its" is "family."
The antecedent of "it" is the verb phrase "throwing stones at me."
7. "It is very cold (PA) here," [ [#1] he said]; | "but I will stay {with you}

{for one night}, and be your messenger (PN)." |

In sentences like this one, there is no antecedent for "It." We all simply assume that it means either "the weather" or "the temperature."
Out of context, there is no antecedent for "he."
The antecedent of "I" is "he."
Out of context, there is no antecedent for "you" and "your."
 
8. Then the Swallow flew back {to the Happy Prince}, and told him (IO)

[DO what (DO) he had done]. |

The antecedent of him" is "Happy Prince."
The antecedent of he" is "Swallow."
9.     "{In the square below}," [ [#1] said the Happy Prince], "there stands a

little match-girl. | She has let her matches fall [#13] {in the gutter}, | and

they are all spoiled (P). | Her father will beat her (DO) [Adv. to "will beat" 

if she does not bring home [NuA] some money (DO)], | and she is crying. |

She has no shoes (DO) or stockings (DO), | and her little head is bare 

(PA). | *You* Pluck out my other eye (DO), and give it (DO) {to her}, |

and her father will not beat her (DO)." |

The antecedent of "She" and 'her" throughout is "match-girl."
The antecedent of "they" is "matches."
The antecedent of "my" is "Happy Prince."
The antecedent of "it" is "eye."
10. [DO "What a remarkable phenomenon (PN) *this is*,"] said the

Professor {of Ornithology} [Adv. to "said" as he was passing {over 

the bridge}]. | "A swallow {in winter}!" [#14] | And he wrote a long 

letter (DO) {about it} {to the local newspaper}. | Everyone quoted it (DO),

| [#2] it was full (PA) {of so many words} [Adj. to "words" that they could 

not understand]. |

The antecedent of "he" throughout is "Professor of Ornithology."
The antecedent of the first "it" is the "swallow" in winter.
The antecedent of the second and third "it" is "letter."
The antecedent of "they" is "Everyone."

Notes
1. KISS explains this clause as an interjection. For more on this, see KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
2. Technically, this is a comma-splice, but it is fairly common in professional writing when there is an implicit causal connection between the clauses.
3. "Me" is the subject and "Happy Prince" is a predicate noun to an ellipsed verbal (infinitive) "to be." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "called."
4. "Be" is in the subjunctive mood. See KISS Level 2.1.7 - The KISS Perspective on the Subjunctive Mood.
5. Here we hit a question that is rarely discussed in grammar textbooks. If we consider "now" an adverb, then this "that" clause is adverbial; if we consider "now" a pronoun that is functioning as an adverb, we could consider this "that" clause as adjectival.
6. Ellipsis is involved here. "I cannot choose *to do anything" but *to* weep." The "anything" is the direct object of the ellipsed infinitive "to do." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "cannot choose." "To weep" is then an infinitive that functions as the object of the preposition "but."
7. "Himself" is an appositive to "King."
8. This "when" clause can be explained as an adjective to "summer" and/or as an adverb to "were."
9. "Sons" is an appositive to "boys."
10. "Of course" can be explained as adverbial, but note how close it comes to being an interjection. 
11. "Swallows" is an appositive to "we."
12. "Famous" is a post-positioned adjective to "family."
13. "Matches" is the subject of the verbal (infinitive) "fall." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "has let."
14. This is, of course, a fragment. We can assume -- "A swallow *is here* in winter!"