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(Code and Color Key)

The Opening Sentences of 
Mansfield Park, by  Jane Austen
Analysis Key

     About [#1] thirty years [NuA] ago Miss Maria Ward, {of 

Huntingdon}, {with only seven thousand pounds}, had the good 

luck (DO) to captivate Sir Thomas Bertram [#2], {of Mansfield 

Park}, {in the county} {of Northampton}, and to be thereby 

raised [#2] {to the rank} {of a baronet's lady}, {with all the comforts 

and consequences} {of an handsome house and large income}. |

All [#3] Huntingdon exclaimed {on the greatness} {of the 

match}, | and her uncle, the lawyer, himself [#4], allowed her  [#5] to

be {at least} three thousand pounds [NuA] short  [#5] {of any equitable 

claim} {to it}. | She had two sisters (DO) to be benefited [#6] {by her 

elevation}; | and such {of their acquaintance} {as *those [#7] } [Adj. to the

ellipsed "those" who* thought Miss Ward and Miss Frances quite as 

handsome [#8] {as Miss Maria},] did not scruple to predict their 

marrying [#9] {with almost equal advantage}. | But there [#10] certainly are

not so many men (PN) {of large fortune} {in the world} [Adv. to "so" as 

there [#10] are pretty women (PN) to deserve them [#11] ]. |

1. Since this "About" means "approximately," it is not usually considered to be a preposition. Instead, it is considered to be an adverb, in this case, modifying the adjective "thirty."
2.  "Sir Thomas Bertram" is the direct object of the infinitive "to captivate." The "and" joins the two infinitives, "to captivate" and "to be raised," both of which function as adjectives to "luck." (Some might claim that they are appositives to "luck.")
 3. Some students may prefer to see this as "All" being the subject with an ellipsed "of" -- All of Huntingdon. Instead of telling them that they are wrong (which they may not be), I would note it as an interesting explanation, and draw their attention to how the human mind is able to process alternative explanations that seem to slide into each other.
4.  Both "lawyer" and "himself" are appositives to "uncle."
5.  "Her" is the subject of the infinitive "to be"; "short" is a predicate adjective after "to be." The infinitive phrase is the direct object of "allowed." Note how this clause emphasizes the importance of money within the social world of the novel, especially in respect to marriage.
6. The infinitive "to be benefited" functions as an adjective to "sisters."
7. Having analyzed hundreds, if not thousands of short texts, I continue to find such analysis amazing. So much of almost every text is so regular, using the same basic constructions over and over and over again. But every so often there is a surprise like this one. I would not expect students to get this on their own until they had had plenty of experience. Until then, they will probably have a problem with the subject of "thought." Perhaps the easiest way to explain it is by assuming ellipsis -- such {of their acquaintance} {as *those} who* thought...."  Note how similar this is to "those of their acquaintance who thought...." Ultimately, this may be another instance of palimpsest patterns.
8.  Some grammarians will claim that "as Miss Maria" here is an ellipsed clause -- "as Miss Maria *was handsome*." Some students may also want to explain the preceding ("Miss Ward and Miss Frances quite as handsome ....") as an ellipsed clause -- "thought Miss Ward and Miss Frances *were* quite as handsome ...." I would not say that they are wrong, but personally I opt for the  ellipsed infinitive here --  "thought Miss Ward and Miss Frances *to be* quite as handsome ...." My only justification here is that, if we replace the nouns with a pronoun, we would all use "them" -- "thought them *to be* quite as handsome ...." "Them," of course, can be the subject of an infinitive, but not of a finite verb. (You will have to search long and hard to find an explanation of this phenomenon in a grammar textbook. And if, after finding one, you continue your search, the second explanation that you find will almost certainly differ from the first.)
9.  "Marrying" is a gerund that functions as the direct object of the infinitive "to predict." Some people will see "to predict" as functioning as the direct object of "did scruple"; others will see it as an adverb modifying it. 
10. See also "Expletive 'There'."
11. "Them" is the direct object of the infinitive "to deserve"; the infinitive phrase functions as an adjective to "women."