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Selection # 1 from Robert L. Heilbroner's The Worldly Philosophers
Analysis Key

[Adv. to "becomes" When men no longer work shoulder [NuA] {to shoulder} {in tasks}

directly related [#1] {to survival}] -- indeed [Adv. to "becomes" [#2] when more {than 

half} {*of* the population} never touches the earth (DO), enters the mines (DO)

builds {with its hands}, or even enters a factory (DO)] -- the perpetuation {of the 

human animal} becomes a remarkable social feat (PN). |

     *It is* [#3] So remarkable (PA), {in fact} [Inj], [ [#4] that society's existence

hangs {by a hair}]. | A modern community is {at the mercy} {of a thousand dangers}: |

[Adv. to "would become disorganized" if its farmers should fail to plant enough crops 

[#5] ]; [#6] [Adv. to "would become disorganized" if its railroad men should take it (DO) 

{into their heads} to become bookkeepers [#7] ] or [Adv. to "would become disorganized" 

*if* its bookkeepers should decide to become railroad men [#8] ]; [Adv. to "would

become disorganized" if too few should offer their services (DO) {as miners}, {*as*

puddlers} {of steel}, {*as* candidates} {for engineering degrees}] -- [#9] {in a word}

[Adv. to "would become disorganized" if any {of a thousand intertwined tasks} {of society} 

should fail to get done [#10] ] -- industrial life would soon become hopelessly 

disorganized. | Every day [NuA] the community faces the possibility (DO) {of 

breakdown} -- not {from the forces} {of nature}, but {from sheer human unpredictability}. |

1. Gerundive to "tasks." 
2. Note how the dashes make this clause what rhetoricians call "parenthetical" -- essentially an additional, but not essential thought. In this case, the absence of an "and" to connect the two "when" clauses, plus the dashes, makes the second clause both adverbial, but also appositional to the first. 
3. This is an interesting case of a fragment at the beginning of a paragraph that works with no problem because it picks up the word "remarkable" from the preceding paragraph and expands on it. Note, however, that it is only eleven words long. 
4. Technically, this is an adverbial clause of result to the preceding "so." Note, however, that society's hanging by a hair is not the result of the remarkability, but rather of the conditions that make the social feat remarkable. 
5. "Crops" is the direct object of the infinitive "to plant." The infinitive phrase is the direct object of "should fail." 
6. Note how, after the colon after "dangers," Heilbroner uses semicolons to separate the "if" clauses. Although each "if" clause is technically adverbial to "would become disorganized," each is also, in meaning," appositional to "dangers." 
7. "Bookkeepers" is a predicate noun after the infinitive "to become." The infinitive phrase names what "it" is and is thus an appositive to "it." 
8. "Railroad men" is a predicate noun after the infinitive "to become.." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "should decide." 
9. Note how the preceding four "if" clauses" explain specific examples of the "dangers." The dash here then signals a change in the type of thought -- from the specific, to the general. Thus the "if" clauses within the dashes is, in meaning, an appositive to the preceding four "if" clauses in addition to being adverbial to "would become disorganized." 
10. Some people will see the infinitive "to get done" as answering the question "Should fail how?" They will therefore explain it as adverbial to "should fail." Others will see it as answering the question "Should fail what?" They will explain it as a direct object. Personally, I prefer the adverbial explanation, but I don't see the point as worth arguing about.