The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

A Study in Punctuation
from
The Black Tower, by P.D. James
Analysis Key

     Note that the four direct objects of "was wearing" are separated by semi-colons.

     The next morning was airless (PA) and sultry (PA), including 

headache [#1], the sky a tent [#2] {of stained calico} ponderous [#3] {with 

unspilt rain}. | The pilgrimage party was due (PA)  to set out [#4] {at nine 

o'clock} | and {at half} {past eight} Millicent Hammitt barged in, {without

a preliminary knock}, to say goodbye [#5]. | She was wearing a blue-grey tweed

suit (DO) badly seated [#6], {with a short double-breasted jacket}; a blouse 

(DO) {in a harsher and discordant blue} adorned [#7] {with garish brooch} {at the

neck}; brogues (DO); and a grey felt hat (DO) pulled [#8] down to cover

the ears [#9]. | She dumped a bulging airline bag (DO) and her shoulder bag 

(DO) {at her feet}, drew on a pair (DO) {of fawn cotton gloves} and held 

out her hand (DO). | Dalgliesh put down his coffee cup (DO). | His right 

hand was grasped (P) {in a crushing grip}. |


Notes
1. "Headache" is the direct object of the gerundive "including." Alternatively, "including" can be viewed as a gerund that functions as a Noun Used as an Adverb to "was." In either case, the headache belonged to Dalgliesh. This is clear from the context, but it does not fit the syntax of the sentence.
2. There are two ways of explaining "the sky a tent." One is that the verb "was" is ellipsed. That would make "sky" its subject and "tent" its predicate noun. The second is two consider "sky" as the subject and "tent" as the predicate noun of an ellipsed "being." This view makes "the sky *being* a tent" a noun absolute that functions as an adverb to "was." (See KISS Level 5.8)  In either view, this is a metaphor since the sky is not literally a tent.
3. "Ponderous" is a post-positioned adjective, a reduction of "which was ponderous." (See KISS Level 5.5) Some people will see it as modifying "calico," but a closer reading suggests "tent." The top of the tent is weighted down with unspilt rain. (No, I did not see this image when I first read it -- we read quickly and miss a lot.)
4. The infinitive "to set out" (= "to leave") functions as an adverb to "due."
5. "Goodbye" is the direct object of the infinitive "to say." The infinitive functions as an adverb (of purpose) to "barged in."
6. "Seated" is a gerundive that modifies "suit."
7. "Adorned" is a gerundive that modifies "blouse."
8.  "Pulled" is a gerundive that modifies "hat." Note the parallel construction--three of the four direct objects are modified by gerundives.
9. "Ears" is the direct object of the infinitive "to cover." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb (of purpose) to "pulled down."