The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The Theodore Dreiser Page
(Code and Color Key)

From “The Lost Phoebe,” by Theodore Dreiser
Subordinate Clauses as Interjections
Analysis Key

1. The creaky wooden loom [Adj. to "loom" {on which} it had been done (P) ] now

stood {like a dusty bony skeleton}, {along with [#1] a broken rocking-chair,

worm-eaten clothes-press — [Inj. Heavens knows how old [#2] ] — a lime-stained

bench [Adj. to "bench" that had once been used (P) to keep flowers [#3] on {outside

the door}], and other decrepit factors {of household utility}}, {in an east room} [Adv. to 

"stood"] [Adj. to "room" that was a lean-to (PN) {against this so-called main portion}]. |
 

2. He aroused {out of his sleep}, actually to see her [#4], [Inj. he thought], moving 

[#5] {from his bedroom} {into the one living room}, her figure *being* [#6] a shadowy 

mass {of black}. |
 

3. “Why [Inj], Mr. Reifsneider [DirA][ Inj. exclaimed old Matilda herself [App],

a stout woman [App], looking [#7] {out of the door} {in answer} {to his knock}], “what

brings yuh (DO) here this mornin' [NuA]|
 

4. This day, [ [#8] as *it* has been said (P)], saw Reifsneider (DO) {at other 

doors}, eagerly asking [#9] his unnatural question, and leaving a trail [#9] {of amazement, 

sympathy, and pity} {in his wake}. |
 

5. [DO [#10]  “Yuh ain't seen Phoebe (DO), [Inj have yuh?]”] inquired the 

old man, looking [#11] up quizzically. |


Notes
1. In cases of multiple, modified objects of prepositions, the normal KISS procedure is to insert the original preposition (considering it to be ellipsed) before the later objects. In this case, however, it is probably easier to simply note that "rocking-chair," "clothes-press," "bench," and "factors" are all objects of the preposition "along with."
2. "How old" is the remnant of an ellipsed clause ("how old *the clothes-press was*"). The clause functions as the direct object of "knows." Note, by the way, the subject/verb agreement error in "Heavens knows."
3. "Flowers" is the direct object of the infinitive "to keep" which functions as an adverb to "had been used."
4. "Her" is the direct object of the infinitive "to see" which functions as an adverb (of result) to "aroused."
5. "Moving" is a gerundive that modifies "her." Some people may prefer to see "her moving" as a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "see."
6. "Figure *being* mass" is the core of a noun absolute that functions as an adverb to "moving."
7. "Looking" is a gerundive that modifies "Mathilda."
8. Some grammars may consider this clause to be adverbial, but it functions more as metadiscourse, and thus more as an interjection.
9. "Asking" and "leaving" are gerundives that modify "Reifsneider."  "Question" is the direct object of "asking," and "trail" is the direct object of "leaving."
10. Although I have marked this clause as a direct object, it could alternatively be considered the main clause and the "inquired the old man. looking up quizzically" could be considered a subordinate clause that functions as an interjection. Most linguists would call the  "have yuh?" clause a "tag question," but within KISS we can also consider it to be another form of interjection.
11. "Looking" is a gerundive to "man."