November, 2013
The Printable KISS Workbooks
The study of grammar is a science.
The teaching of grammar is an art.

The Magic Circle
c.1886
Tate Gallery at London
by
John W. Waterhouse
(1849-1917)
KISS Grammar in One Year?

An Instructional Design 

for Working 

with Middle School Students
 

Note: As of now, I do not plan on making a printable workbook and analysis key book for this design, but Vicki has contributed a printable version of the exercises for use with her daughter. (She added some extra exercises.) Click here to get it.
     In this on-line version, each assignment has links to the assignment and to the teachers' analysis key (AK).  You can simply print out the exercises and check the analysis keys on-line. In addition, each assignment includes a link -- for example  (Level 1.1.1) -- to the KISS Master Collection of exercises. Using these links, you may find a comparable exercise that is better suited to your students. You may also decide that your students need more exercises at a specific level. If you want to make printable books, see"Making Printable Books."

Introduction

     A number of potential users of KISS have been hesitant to start a program that requires a number of years of work. Given what is generally thought about "grammar," I can understand their position. If I remember correctly, it was Lucian, an ancient Greek writer, who claimed to be a skeptic because there were too many schools of philosophy, each requiring several years of instruction. As he noted, it wasn't worth it to spend those years only to find that the instruction was worthless. And, as Hegel said, "The owl of wisdom flies at twilight." In other words, one really understands what one has learned after spending a long time studying it.
     As a result, I  made this one-year design. It should enable middle or high school teachers to teach the basics of KISS in a single year. Such instruction is not ideal, but it is far better than what is currently taught. Attentive students can learn to identify subjects, verbs, complements, and clauses. As a result, they should be able to understand (and thus avoid) errors such as "it's/its," "of/have," subject/verb agreement errors, and fragments, comma-splices, and run-ons. From my perspective, of course, this is a band-aid. Students will have almost no time to devote to style, logic, advanced constructions, and, most important, applications to their own writing. This "one-year" design consists of approximately seventy exercises. If students do two per week, they can complete it in one year. A better approach would be to do one a week and spread the sequence over two years, but most schools are unable to do this.

The Objectives of this Single-Year Design

     For middle and high school teachers who wish to give it a try, I suggest that your primary objective should be to get most of your students to be able to identify the clause structure of most of their sentences. In the process of reaching this objective, your students should learn how to:

1.) identify subjects and verbs (and thus recognize and be able to correct subject/verb agreement errors), and
2.) identify main and most subordinate clauses (and thus recognize and be able to correct comma-splices, run-ons, and fragments).
For readers unfamiliar with KISS, I should note that KISS begins with the the identification of subjects and verbs, and students will continue to underline subjects and verbs in every KISS analytical exercise. Students will, in other words, regularly be seeing "it's" and learning to underline the "it" as the subject and  the "'s" as its verb. In the KISS Approach, in other words, the identification exercises work toward eliminating the "it's" and "its" spelling errors.
     KISS also makes clauses much easier for students to understand than does any other approach to teaching grammar. A clause is a subject/verb pattern and all the words that meaningfully "go with" that pattern. Because KISS begins by teaching students to identify the subjects and verbs in any sentence, clauses simply become a matter of extending that knowledge to all the words that go with each pattern.
     To arrive at the sequence in this book, I have eliminated most of the exercises devoted to writing, style, and logic. The "Treasure Hunts" and "Passages for Analysis" have also been left out. Their objective is primarily to show students that what they are learning truly applies to what they read and write, but they lack the focus of the identification exercises. This design, in other words, focuses on identification because the ability to identify what the teacher and students are talking about is essential to understanding, and because the identification exercises enable students to see and correct the most commonly complained of errors in their writing.

Overview of the Design

     This book provides an instructional design of 71 homework assignments and suggestions for introducing and/or reviewing them in class. Teachers may decide that they can skip some of the assignments, so if we assume two, occasionally three ten-minute homework assignments a week, the material can be covered in a thirty-week sequence of instruction. The 71 assignments are followed by nine optional assignments that focus primarily on punctuation (the use of apostrophes, etc.). 

Time Required in Class and on Homework 

     As homework assignments, KISS exercises should take students no more than ten minutes to complete. This holds even for the later, more complicated exercises because by the time students get to them, the identification of subjects, verbs, prepositional phrases, etc. should have become almost automatic. The only exception to that is exercise seventy, in which students do a statistical analysis of a short selection of their own writing. 
     In school, an entire class period may occasionally be required -- for examples, the presentation of the KISS Psycholinguistic model, and the group work in which the students review the analysis of their own writing. Obviously, some teachers will be able to (or want to) devote more (or less) class time and homework to grammar, so this design is essentially an example. You can modify it by deleting, replacing, or adding exercises.
     Finally, and most important, teachers should not correct homework. The nonsense about evaluating teachers on how many of their students pass standardized tests is simply stupid. Indeed, it is ruining our students by leading them to believe that they have no responsibility for their own success or failure. Students can check their own homework in class. This can be done by simply putting the analysis key up on an overhead. The students can then ask questions about anything they do not understand. The time estimates below assume this approach. Instead of checking homework, teachers can make formal assessments by short quizzes--two or at most three sentences will be enough to indicate how well the students have mastered the material.
     A more time-consuming  alternative to this is to have students check each others' work in small groups. Occasionally, teachers may want to spend an entire class period checking the homework by having the students play the KISS Grammar Game. (See the KISS Printable Books page.)



KISS Level 1.1 Identifying Subjects and Verbs
 
1 - What is a sentence? (Level 1.1.1)
In class: Briefly describe KISS Grammar and your objectives for it. Give students the instructional material for KISS Level 1.1.1 ("What Is a Sentence?") In class, do:
Exercise: "Is It a Sentence?" AK ToC
Tell the students that they are expected to memorize:
"Am," "is," "are," "was," "were," and "has," "had," and "have" (unless it follows "to") are always verbs that should be underlined twice.
IM: "Single-Word Verbs" (Level 1.1.2)
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
2. - Finding the Complete Verb Phrase  (Tenses) (Level 1.1.3 )
In class: Closed-book Quiz: Ask the students to list the eight verbs that are always underlined twice.
IM:  "Finding the Complete Verb Phrase (Tenses)"
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
3 - Finding the Complete Verb Phrase - (Modal)  (Level 1.1.4 )
IM: "Finding the Complete Verb Phrase (Modal)"
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
4 - Finding the Complete Verb Phrase - (Other)   (Level 1.1.5 )
 IM: "Other Helping Verbs"
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
5a - More Practice with Verb Phrases  (Level 1.1.6 )
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC

5b Optional:Fill in the blanks with interesting verbs  (Level 1.1.7 )
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC
(This is primarily a vocabulary and style exercise.)

6 - Subjects and Verbs - A Passage for Analysis  (Level 1.1.8 )
The Opening of E. A. Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" AK ToC

KISS Level 1. 2. Adding Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, and Phrases
 

7 - Identifying Nouns and Pronouns  (Level 1.2.1 )
IM: "Identifying Nouns and Pronouns.
From Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland AK ToC
[The assumption here is that middle school students will not have much, if any, trouble forming plurals. Thus the focus should be to enable students to recognize nouns and pronouns.]
8 - Identifying Adjectives and Adverbs - 1  (Level 1.2.5 )
IM: "Identifying Adjectives and Adverbs"
From Stephen Crane's "The Blue Hotel" AK ToC
9 - Adjectives and Adverbs - 2  (Level 1.2.5 )
FiB - From Stephen Crane's "The Blue Hotel" AK ToC
10 - Phrases (Chunking and Modification) - 1  (Level 1.2.6 )
IM: "Identifying Phrases (Chunking and Modification)."
From Hawthorne's "The Gorgon's Head" (10 sentences) AK ToC
11 - Phrases (Chunking and Modification) - 2  (Level 1.2.6 )
From Hawthorne's "The Gorgon's Head" (Passage) AK ToC
12 - Possessive Nouns and Pronouns Function as Adjectives  (Level 1.2.7 )
Possessive Nouns and Pronouns Function as Adjectives AK ToC

KISS Level 1. 3. Adding Complements (PA, PN, IO, DO) 
 

13 - Identifying Complements - 1 (Level 1.3.1 )
IM: "Identifying Complements," and "Identifying the Types of Complements

Special Note: This is a two step process that current users have reported as troublesome for many students. Too many students resist learning a process to arrive at an answer. This is also why so manyy students have problems with math problems. You may find it worthwhile to devote almost an entire class period to the instructional material, a set of "Examples for the Process," and perhaps even doing a few sentences from exercise 1.3.1a in class.
    Put differently, this is not just instruction in identifying complements; it is instruction in learning to use a process for solving problems. It goes far beyond English (as in "Writing as a Process") and applies, for example, to solving problems in electronics and business courses.

From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC
14 - Identifying Complements - 2 (Level 1.3.1 )
[Note that by this point, most students should be able to identify the subjects and verbs in sentences almost automatically (without thinking). Thus five minutes should be more than enough time for students to analyze ten sentences in which the only things they need to think about are how to identify the complements, and how to determine the type of each.]
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens (#3) AK ToC
15 - Identifying Complements - 3 (Level 1.3.1 )
Charlemagne and the Charcoal-burner AK ToC
16 - Identifying Complements - 4 (Level 1.3.1 )
10 Sentences from a 9th Grader's Writing [G9] AK ToC
17 - Verbs as Subjects or Complements (Level 1.3.7 )
IM: "Verbs as Subjects or Complements
From Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities AK ToC
18 - Predicate Adjective or Part of the Verb? (Level 1.3.8 )
IM: "Predicate Adjective or Part of the Verb?" [FYI: See the brief "Background for Teachers" on this.]
From "The Nightingale," by H. C. Andersen AK ToC

KISS Level 1. 4. Compounding
 

19 - Compound Finite Verbs (Level 1.4.2 )
IM: "Coordinating Conjunctions and Compounding"
     Compounding with "and," "or," or "but" is a very simple concept. The primary objectives of this Level are threefold: 1.) Establish the concept and term; 2.) Make sure that students look for all the subjects for a verb, all the verbs that go with a subject, etc.; and 3.) provide more practice in identifying the types of complements.
     There are three identification exercises in this section -- 1.) "Mixed Complements," 2.) "Compound Finite Verbs," and 3.) "Compound Complements." To limit this section to two classes, I'm suggesting the last two because they also serve as writing models.
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
20 - Compound Complements (Level 1.4.3 )
From E. B. White's The Trumpet of the Swan AK ToC

KISS Level 1. 5. Adding Simple Prepositional Phrases

     This plan devotes six exercises to prepositional phrases for a number of reasons. First, there are approximately ninety words that can function as prepositional phrases. Students do not need to memorize all of them, but they need enough practice with them for their brains to make a conscious connection to the unconscious concept that is already in their heads. If they do not make such a connection, many students will consider the object of a preposition as the subject of a verb.  Second, our objective is to enable students to be able to explain the functions of as many words as possible in what they read and write. By middle school, many students may find that a quarter of the words in their writing are in prepositional phrases. (Approximately a third of the words in much professinal writing are in such phrases.) Third, prepostional phrases are one of the most  fruitful constructions for initial discussions of style.
 

21 - Identifying Prepositional Phrases  (Level 1.5.1 )
     Note that from this point on, the directions for identification exercises will always begin with:
1. Place parentheses around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline every subject once, every verb twice, and label complements ("PA," "PN," "IO," "DO").
IM: "What Is a Prepositional Phrase?" and "Words That Can Function as Prepositions."
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC
22 - The Functions of Prepositional Phrases - 1  (Level 1.5.2 )
IM: "The Functions of Prepositional Phrases."
10 Sentences from a 9th Grader's Writing AK ToC
23 - The Functions of Prepositional Phrases - 2  (Level 1.5.2 )
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
24- Prepositional Phrases as Indirect Objects  (Level 1.5.4 )
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
25 -Is It a Preposition? (or SC?)  (Level 2.2.2 )
IM: Is It a Preposition?
Is It a Preposition? AK ToC
26 - Embedded Prepositional Phrases  (Level 2.2.3 )
IM: "Embedded Prepositional Phrases."
     "Embedding" answers a question that some users have had about prepositional phrases. Although it is not essential to an understanding of such phrases, it becomes very important for understanding clause structures. Use "The Pledge of Allegiance" as an example:
"The Pledge of Allegiance" AK ToC
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC

Level 2. 1. 6 - Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals
 

27 - Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals -- The Noun Test  (Level 2.1.6, Ex. 1 )
[Read the "Important Background Material for Teachers."] IM: "The Noun Test.
From Heidi, by Johanna Spyri AK ToC
28 - Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals -- The "To" Test  (Level 2.1.6, Ex. 2 )
IM: "The 'To' Test."
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
29 - Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals -- The Sentence Test  (Level 2.1.6, Ex. 3 )
IM: "The Sentence Test."
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
30 - Distinguishing Finite Verbs from Verbals -- Mixed Verbals (Level 2.1.6, Ex. 4 )
From "Perseus," by Charles Kingsley  AK ToC

KISS Level 3. 1. 1 - Compound Main Clauses
 

31 - Identifying Main Clauses - 1 (Level 3.1.1, Ex. 1 )
IM: "An Introduction to Clauses."
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens (#2) AK ToC
32 - Identifying Main Clauses - 2 (Level 3.1.1, Ex. 1 )
From Andersen's "The Snow Queen (# 1) AK ToC
33 - The Punctuation and Logic of Compounded Main Clauses - 1 (Level 3.1.1, Ex. 2 )
IM: "Clauses and Logic: Combining Main Clauses."
     This instructional material explains the use of semicolins, colons, and dashes to join main clauses. It directly applies to the problems with run-ons and comma-splices in the writing of many students.
Famous Quotations AK ToC
34 - The Punctuation and Logic of Compounded Main Clauses - 2 (Level 3.1.1, Ex. 2 )
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC
35 - Syntax & Logic - Compounding Main Clauses - 1 (Level 3.1.1, Ex. 3 )
Combining Main Clauses (Ex. 1) AK ToC
36 - Syntax & Logic - Compounding Main Clauses - 2 (Level 3.1.1, Ex. 5 )
Writing Compound Sentences with a Dash, Colon, or Semicolon

KISS Level 3. 1. 2 - Mixed Subordinate Clauses
 

37 - Mixed Subordinate Clauses - 1  (Level 3.1.2, Ex. 1 )
IM:  "An Introduction to Clauses."
From Maxwell's Introductory Lessons in English Grammar AK ToC
38 - Mixed Subordinate Clauses - 2  (Level 3.1.2, Ex. 1 )
In class: Show the students the KISS Psycholinguistic Model of How our Brains Process Language. [35-30 minutes?]

     This model transforms the study of grammar into a study of how our brains use grammar to create meaning. It also justifies all the KISS rules about errors and punctuation. 

From The Queen of the Pirate Isle, by Bret Harte AK ToC
39 - Mixed Subordinate Clauses - 3  (Level 3.1.2, Ex. 1 )
From Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland AK ToC
40 - The Logic of Subordinate Clauses  (Level 3.1.2, Ex. 3 )
IM: "The Logic of Subordinate Clauses."
From Maxwell's Introductory Lessons in English Grammar AK ToC

KISS Level 3.1.3 - Embedded Subordinate Clauses
 

41 - Embedded Subordinate Clauses - 1 (Level 3.1.3, Ex. 2 )
IM: Instructional material on Embedding and the Procedure for Identifying Clauses.
Optional: Use the procedure to analyze:
"The House That Jack Built" AK ToC
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
42 - Embedded Subordinate Clauses - 2 (Passage) (Level 3.1.3, Ex. 3 )
From Kipling's "The Beginning of the Armadilloes" AK ToC
The "suppose you say that I said that she said" play in this 78-word passage makes it a humorous, but challenging exercise with third and fourth level embeddings of subordinate clauses.

KISS Level 3. 1. 2 - More Practice on the Logic of Subordinate Clauses
 

43 - More Practice on the Logic of Subordinate Clauses - 1  (Level 6.2 )
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett AK ToC
44 - More Practice on the Logic of Subordinate Clauses - 2  (Level 6.2 )
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett AK ToC

Passive Voice

     Trying to teach passive voice to students who cannot identify verbs in the first place is like trying to teach a cat to catch mice in Greek. The cat already knows how to catch mice, and the students already know how to use passive voice. No matter how often one attempts in Greek to teach a cat when it is not appropriate to catch mice, the cat is not going to understand. Similarly, the problem for students is  primarily the question of propriety--when is passive voice better (or worse) than active? To understand this effectively, students must first be able to identify the verbs to which the question applies.
 

45 - Identifying Passive Voice # 1 (Level 5.7, Ex. 1)
Discuss the instructional material on passive voice.
From Heidi, by Johanna Spyri AK ToC
46 - Identifying Passive Voice # 2 (Level 5.7, Ex. 1)
Tom Swifties AK ToC
47 - Rewriting from Passive Voice to Active & from Active to Passive  (Level 5.7, Ex. 3)
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC

KISS Level 3. 1. 2 - More on Specific Types of Subordinate Clauses
 

48 - Noun Clauses - Quotations as Direct Objects (Level 3.1.2 Noun DO Ex. 2)
IM: Quotations as Direct Objects
From Holbrook's  “The Story of the First Hummingbird” AK ToC
49 - Rewriting Adverbial Clauses as Main and Main as Adverbial (Level 3.1.2 Adv. Ex. 3)
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC

The Logic of Adverbial Clauses
 

50 - The Logic of Adverbial Clauses (Level 3.1.2 Adv. Ex. 4)
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC
51 - The Logic of Adverbial Clauses (Combining Sentences)  (Level 3.1.2 Adv. Ex. 5)
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC
52 - "Alicia" and The Logic of Adverbial Clauses  (Level 6.2 Logic MIMC)
"Alicia" (MIMC) AK/ToC

Adjectival Clauses
 

53 - Rewriting Adjectival Clauses as Main and Main as Adjectival  (Level 3.1.2 Adj., Ex. 5)
From Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland AK ToC

More on Noun Clauses
 

54 - Mixed Noun Clauses  (Level 3.1.2 Noun - Other, Ex. 1
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
55 - Mixed Delayed Subjects  (Level 5.6, Ex. 4
IM: Delayed Subjects.
From The Master of Ballantrae, by R. L. Stevenson AK ToC

More on the Logic of Compound Main Clauses
 

56 - The Logic of Compound Main Clauses (with subordinate clauses) (L6.1 Punctuation)
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC
57 - Logic - Multiple Ways of Combining Main Clauses (L3.1.2 Mixed, Ex. 3b)
From Holbrook's  "The Face of the Manito" AK ToC
58 - A Comparison/Contrast Paragraph  (Semicolons) (Level 6.6 Comp/Contrast)
From Robert L. Heilbroner's The Worldly Philosophers AK ToC
59 - Writing -- Comparison/Contrast  (Semicolons) (Level 6.6 Comp/Contrast)
Cats and Dogs? ToC
60- Writing -- General to Specific (Colons and Dashes)  (Level 6.6 Gen/Specific)
From "Why The Hoofs of The Deer Are Split," by Florence Holbrook  AK ToC

KISS Level 3.1.2 Parallel Constructions
 

61 - Style -  Parallel Constructions (Level 3.1.2 Mixed, Ex. 5a)
From Kipling's "The Butterfly That Stamped" [This includes instructional material.] AK ToC
62 - Style -  Parallel Subordinate Clauses (Level 3.1.2 Mixed, Ex. 6)
The Opening Two Paragraphs of Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities  AK ToC

KISS Level 4 - Verbals (Gerunds, Gerundives, and Infinitives)
 

63 - Identifying Verbals  (Level 4.1 Mixed Verbals, Ex. 1)
IM: Verbals
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC

KISS Level 4 - Gerundives
 

64 - Identifying Gerundives - 1  (Level 4.3 Gerundives, Ex. 1)
From Stephen Crane's "The Blue Hotel" AK ToC
65 - Identifying Gerundives - 2  (Level 4.3 Gerundives, Ex. 1)
From "The Lagoon," by Joseph Conrad (Ex # 3) Text AK ToC
66 - From Main Clause to Subordinate Clause to Gerundive  (Level 4.3 Gerundives, Ex. 4)
From Stephen Crane's "The Blue Hotel" AK ToC

Appositives
 

67 - Identifying Appositives - 1  (Level 5.4, Ex. 1)
IM: Appositives
From Agatha Christie's The Murder of Roger Ackroyd AK ToC
68 - Identifying Appositives - 2  (Level 5.4, Ex. 1)
From The Master of Ballantrae, by R. L. Stevenson AK ToC
69 - From Main Clause to Subordinate Clause to Appositive  (Level 5.4, Ex. 5)
From "Perseus," by Charles Kingsley AK ToC

Analyzing My Own Writing
 

70 - Explanation and Assignment  (Level 6.5, Analyzing My Own Writing)
For KISS Levels 3 and up TN ToC
71 - Small Group Work to Review the Analysis
In class: Have the students work in small groups to check each others' analysis and math.
     You may want to collect and average the number of words per main clause and subordinate clauses per main clause for the class. You can then share that with them. You might also want to share with them the results of the professional studies described in "Statistical Exercises and KISS Grammar" and, perhaps, the larger group of data on the KISS Grammar Summary Table of Statistics.
     Remember to emphazise that their objective should be to be somewhere near the average.

Supplemental Exercises

     Many college students still have problems with "to" and with apostrophes, so you may want to have your students do some of the following exercises.
 

SE # 1 -- Prepositions by Themselves Can Function as Adverbs   (Level 1.5, Ex.. 3)
* Mama Skunk AK ToC
This humorous little story about "Mama Skunk" is the same across all grade levels. While it illustrates how "prepositions" by themselves can function as adverbs, it also asks students to identify the functions of prepositional phrases.
SE # 2 --  The Importance of Punctuation   (Level 1.7, Ex. 1)
IM: "The KISS Grammar Basic Guide to Punctuation."
"Dear John" -  The Importance of Punctuation AK
     The same text can be punctuated in two different ways that result in entirely different meanings!
SE # 3 --  Level 2. 2. 1. The "To" Problem   (Level 2.2.1, Ex. 1)
IM: "The 'To' Problem"
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
     Some students have trouble distinguishing "to" as a preposition and "to" as the sign of an infinitive. This instructional material and exercise help them master the difference.
SE # 4 -- Writing Sentences with "To" or "Too" (Level 2.2.1, Ex. 3)
A Mini-Lesson on "To" and "Too"
Writing Sentences with "to" and "too" - Notes
     "To" presents students with an additional problem in that they confuse it with "too." As the mini-lesson explains, this results in errors that are readily noted by most readers, not just because they are "errors," but because they lead the reader to expect something that does not appear. "Samantha wanted to go to." raises the question "go to what?" In other cases, they hit the reader with a "what" when the reader does not expect it -- "Samantha wanted to go too the park."
     Some teachers claim that this is not a serious error, and that may be true. But the differences between "to" and "too" are not that difficult to understand. Thus, people who regularly use these words incorrectly give the impression of being either uneducated or lazy.  As I tell my college Freshmen, misspellings of "to" and "too" have, and will continue to, make the difference between an A or a B (or a B and a C) on papers, not just in my English class, but also in papers for any other course. The errors are very noticeable, and they give the instructor the impression that the writer is not very careful or concerned with the paper.
SE # 5 -- Apostrophes to Show Possession (Level 1.7, Ex. 6)
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
SE # 6 -- "Apostrophes  in Contractions" (Level 1.7, Ex. 7)
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC
SE # 7 -- Punctuating Adjectival Clauses and Other Modifiers (Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Modifiers) (Level 3.1.2. Adj. Ex. 4)
IM: Restrictive and Non-restrictive Constructions
From "Perseus," by Charles Kingsley AK ToC
SE # 8 -- "Replacing Lost Punctuation & Capitalization" (Level 1.7, Ex. 9)
From Heidi by Johanna Spyri Original AK ToC
SE # 9 -- "Replacing Lost Punctuation & Capitalization" (Level 6.1)
Aesop's "Belling the Cat" (Milo Winter) Original AK ToC