Feb. 9, 2013
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KISS Level 1.3. Identifying Complements (PA, PN, IO, DO)

     KISS Level 1.3 may be the "make or break" point in using the KISS Approach because (unlike most pedagogical grammars) it introduces students to procedures -- short sequences of questions -- that they should use to identify the types of complements (predicate adjectives, predicate nouns, indirect and direct objects). Many students refuse to do  this, but if they do not learn how to use sequences of questions to analyze sentences, they will have major problems not only with most of KISS Grammar, but also with math and many other subjects, including the writing process. For more on this, see "Emphasizing the Analytical Process," below.
Notes for Teachers - The Grammarians' Secret
Emphasizing the Analytical Process
Mixed Complements, Exercises 1 (a - d)
A Focus on Predicate Adjectives, Exercise 2
A Focus on Predicate Nouns, Exercise 3
A Focus on Direct Objects, Exercise 4
A Focus on Indirect Objects, Exercise 5
A Focus on the Zero Complement, Exercise 6
Verbs as Subjects or Complements, Exercise 7
Predicate Adjective or Part of the Verb?, Exercise 8
Writing Sentences with Complements, Exercise 9
A Passage for Analysis, Exercise 10
Just for Fun - Mixed Complements, Exercise 11

 
Notes for Teachers - The Grammarians' Secret

The "What"

     Once students can identify most subjects and finite verbs in a sentence, the next step is to add complements. A complement, very simply, is whatever answers the questions “Whom?” or “What?” after a verb. As noted in the discussion of KISS differences, KISS offers the S/V/C pattern as the basis of a sentence rather than the traditional “subject and predicate.” (See "The Differences between KISS and Traditional Terms" in the  Background Essays.) Traditional grammar books rarely enable students to analyze complicated sentences because they basically ignore complements. Thus they cannot give students an essential, invariable guideline—the complement of one verb can never be the subject of another verb. As you will see as you get into the analysis of complicated sentences, this guideline is extremely important.

Distinguishing the Types of Complements—The Grammarians’ Secret

     Traditionally, grammarians have focused on categorizing words, not on analyzing sentences. Because verbs are so central to the language, the grammarians have given them a lot of attention. One of the things they have done is to put them into three categories—transitive, intransitive, and “linking.” Following the grammarians, the textbooks have uselessly tortured students with definitions of “transitive” and  “intransitive,” and with lists of “linking” verbs. I say “uselessly” because most college Freshmen cannot identify a verb in the first place, and because even many teachers find the categories to be confusing. (I’m thinking of the teacher on NCTE-Talk who advocated the teaching of grammar and asked why we no longer teach “transient” and “intransient” verbs.) KISS skips this whole problem by simply using the methods that the grammarians used to derive the three categories in the first place.
     Grammarians noted that some verbs take indirect and/or direct objects -- Our cat brought us (IO) a mouse (DO). They named these verbs “transitive.” They also noted that some verbs are not followed by words that answer the questions “Whom?” or “What?” (She runs every day.) They named these verbs “intransitive.” And they noted that some verbs take predicate nouns or predicate adjectives. (She is a teacher (PN). She is smart (PA).) They categorized these verbs as “linking.” Because most grammar textbooks do not teach students to identify complements in the first place, they cannot use this method for teaching the three categories of verbs. But KISS does, and thus KISS can.
     The three categories of verbs are more important as vocabulary words than they are as analytical tools, so KISS basically ignores them, opting for the sentence patterns instead. But if you do want to teach students the differences among transitive, intransitive, and linking verbs, begin with the normal KISS process for distinguishing complements, and then give the students the information in the preceding paragraph.
     Distinguishing the types of complements is not really necessary in order to understand the syntactic connections in a sentence. It is, however, very important for helping students understand the logic of sentence structure. Most important of all is an understanding of predicate nouns. A predicate noun in some way equals the subject. (That is how KISS teaches it. See the instructional material.) Students, however, often use the pattern improperly. One student, for a simple example, wrote, “The practice room is the only time I can get away.” But a room is not a time. Thus the primary reason for having students distinguish the types of complements is to help them keep the logic of their writing clear. 
     I might note, by the way, that S/V/PN patterns are also the expected beginning sentences of formal definitions. In upper level courses, some students lose a lot of credit because, when asked to define a term, they will explain what it does, where it is, why it works, but they never give the instructor the required information regarding what it is.
     If you are working with randomly selected texts, tell students that there are some complements that you expect them to miss. Among these are infinitive phrases:

Gerald wanted Bill to leave.
Students will clearly see that the answer to the question “Gerald wanted what?” is “Bill to leave,” but “Bill to leave” is not a simple complement. Thus they will be confused. Similarly, they will be confused by clauses:
Geraldine hoped that Sunday would come soon.
When they first start exploring for complements, students will be looking for single words. The clause will confuse them. 
     I would strongly suggest that you not try to teach them infinitives, clauses, etc. at this point. If you do, you will be following in the footsteps of most grammar textbooks—trying to teach everything at once and effectively teaching nothing. On the other side of the question, students should be expected to identify all of the single-word complements in any sentence:
Susan playedbaseball (DO) in the morning, tennis (DO) in the afternoon, and soccer (DO) in the evening.
Technically, such compounding is the focus of KISS Level 1.4, but most students should have little trouble with the underlying idea, even though they may not remember the term "compound" at this point.

Emphasizing the Analytical Process
and 
Teaching Students How to Think Better

     Many students strongly resist learning to use an instructional sequence -- a set series of questions -- to arrive at the answer to a problem. This has been noted by Arthur Whimbey in Blueprint for Educational Change, by Jane Healy in Endangered Minds, and by many others. Failure to master the very idea of using a process to figure out the answer to a problem accounts in large part for the problems that students have with math. (Remember how math teachers typically insist that students "show their work"?) As Art Whimbey notes, "strong" students break any task down into steps; "weak" students think that one either knows the answer or one does not.
     In Endangered Minds: Why Children Don't Think--and What We Can Do About It, Jane Healy discusses the following question (p. 189):

As the figure notes, "Only 6.4% of the 17-year-olds could solve multi-step problems like this one." 
     The point here is that simply understanding the importance of solving multi-step problems is a foundation stone of a good education. In some cases, as in math and in KISS Grammar, students can actually be given the specific series of steps. Note that in the math problem above, however, that students have to figure it out for themselves. By giving students the specific steps, and by forcing students to learn and use those steps, KISS can both make such problems easier and help students understand the importance of using steps to solve problems.
     In the teaching of writing, "the writing process" has been a major focus for the last two decades. Most weak writers believe that writing a paper is a one-shot deal. One simple sits down and writes it. Good writers, however, know that good writing requires a process -- brainstorming, tentative outlining, drafting, revising, perhaps more brainstorming, revising again, and finally editing. It is, however, one thing to "teach" the process; getting students to use it is something entirely different. 
     Some of my college Freshmen have explained that resistance to process results from laziness, irresponsibility, or the distraction of too many college parties. Some educators have argued that our educational system itself reinforces the belief in facts -- the "right" answers. Perhaps many students logically use this focus on facts to justify their resistance to learning a process. After all, if the answers are what are important, why waste time and effort learning a process? A process is not an answer.
     I have belabored this point because in KISS Level 1.2, students should be encouraged to learn the first of several processes (sets of steps) that make grammar much easier to understand. If, in other words, you can convince students to learn and use these steps, you may be able to convince them that other processes (in math, writing, etc.) can also be very useful. In still other words, you may be able to teach students how to think better.

The "How"

      As noted above, KISS Level 1.3 is the first of many KISS Levels that really depend on students learning how to use a multi-step approach to getting the "right" answer. In fact, this level includes two steps, the second of which itself is a series of steps. The first step is to identify complements as complements. To identify complements, students need to memorize and learn to use the following:

 To find a complement of a verb, ask the question "whom or what?" after the verb.
Note that the question must be "whom or what?" Other questions, such as "how?" "when?" "where?" or "why?" will identify adverbs, but not complements. 
     The second step is to identify the types of the complements. The instructional material for students includes some examples, but the sequence itself is:
1. If nothing answers the question "Verb + whom or what?", the pattern is S/V. [STOP: You have your answer.]
2. If the word that answers the question describes the subject, the pattern is S/V/PA. [STOP: You have your answer.]
3. If the word that answers the question is a noun (or pronoun) that renames the subject and the verb implies an equality or identity between subject and complement, the pattern is S/V/PN. [STOP: You have your answer.]
 4. If a word or construction answers the question is not a predicate noun or predicate adjective, it has to be an indirect or direct object. An indirect object indicates the person "for" or "to" whom something is done. [STOP: You have your answer.]
5. Any other complement has to be a direct object.
Remember that "complement" is simply one word which can be used instead of repeating the five possibilities: Zero Complement, Predicate Adjective, Predicate Noun, Indirect and/or Direct Object. Note too that the sequence is an exercise in Boolean logic that can also be illustrated as a flow chart.

     Ideally students should start by studying the instructional materials for both identifying complements and for identifying their type. Personally, I would not ask students to memorize the instructional material before they start doing exercises. Simply let them use the instructional material as they do the first few exercises -- most students will probably absorb the sequence in this way. At some point, however,  you may want to give a quiz to see if they have it. The answers to such a quiz can be "short-hand" -- "describes subject = PA" etc.
     Because some students have trouble both with multi-step procedures and with limiting the question for a complement to "whom or what?" you may want to separate instruction into two parts.  Thus, you can have the students simply label complements as "C" in a few exercises. Once students are fairly comfortable with identifying complements as complements, give them the sequence for identifying the types of complements.
     In either case, you will probably find that all students will learn faster if you review two or three exercises in class. Indeed, some students will not learn to use the procedure unless you use it to review some exercises in class. Many students also like to use the KISS Grammar Game. (See "An Overview of the Types of KISS Exercises," in the Background Essays.)
      Impress upon students the importance of working systematically. Systematic thinking is another skill that many students lack. Students should first find the verb, then the subject(s) of that verb, then any complements for that verb. Then they should check for any other verbs in the sentence. If there is one, they should underline it, find its subject(s) and its complement(s). If there are none, they should go on to the next sentence. (Once they add prepositional phrases to their analytical toolboxes, students should begin by finding all the prepositional phrases in a sentence first, and then the verb/subject/complement patterns.)
     A systematic approach to one’s task is a key characteristic of good thinking. It will also make it much easier to understand sentence structure. If you do not emphasize systematic thinking, you will find that many students will underline a verb here, a subject three sentences further into the text, etc. In essence, they will be looking to identify individual words rather than patterns. Pattern recognition is another major skill of good thinkers. Don't forget to remind the students that there are mistakes that they are expected to make at this level.

Another Problem — Predicate Adjective or Part of the Verb Phrase?

     If you have students analyze randomly selected texts, including samples of their own writing, you will run into another problem that is rarely, if ever, discussed in grammar textbooks. Consider the following two sentences: 

1. He was worried about the game. 
2. The Eagles were defeated by the Patriots.
In (1), “worried” describes the emotional state of “He” more than it denotes any particular action. But in (2), “were defeated” denotes a specific action performed by the Patriots. Thus some grammarians would consider “worried” a predicate adjective, whereas “were defeated” should be considered as a finite verb in the passive voice.
     In effect, the two constructions, S/V/PA and passive voice slide into each other, and thus how you should explain it depends on how you interpret the sentence. Passive voice is, I should note, an “advanced” question (KISS Level 5.7).  But at Level 1.2, the problem is that some students will mark both “worried” and “defeated” as predicate adjectives. At this level, therefore, I would gently nudge students toward considering these predicate adjectives that are based on verbs to all be part of the finite verb. Once students learn about passive voice, they can begin to deal with the “passive voice or predicate adjective” problem. (This is, you may have noted, another application of Jerome Bruner's concept of the "spiral curriculum.")

The Sequence of the Exercises 
in KISS Level 1.3

     Exercise One (a-d) present students with sentences that have a mix of complements. If you can get students to remember and use the analytical process, you should be able to skip exercises two through six, each of which focuses on a specific type of complement. 
     Exercise seven ("Verbs as Subjects or Complements") introduces students to relatively simple sentences such as "Swimming is good exercise." or "They like hiking." Technically, "Swimming" and "hiking" are verbals (verbs that function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs), but students do not need to know that yet. (Distinguishing finite verbs from verbals is the focus of KISS Level 2.1.6.) But even very young students, if they analyze their own writing, will run across sentences in which a verbal functions as a subject or a complement. Thus the purpose of this exercise is to introduce the idea. In sentences such as "Swimming is good exercise," most students will automatically guess that "Swimming" is the subject. Thus this exercise simply confirms that they are right.
     Exercise eight is on the "predicate adjective or part of the verb" problem. Nine invites students to write sentences using various types of complements. Ten presents a passage for analysis (as opposed to isolated sentences). Eleven is a "Just for Fun" practice exercise.

     Remember that the on-line section for this KISS Level includes additional exercises (most of which are used in other grade-level books). Another excellent way of teaching students is to have them make similar exercises for their classmates, preferably based on what they are reading. Finally, to end this KISS Level, have students analyze a short passage of their own writing.
 
Emphasizing the Analytical Process
[For teachers and parents]
     The following exercises include detailed, lengthy, and very repetitive analysis keys. These keys illustrate that the very repetitiveness of the process should make it automatic for students. These exercises take the analysis through clauses so that teachers can see, and explain to their students, how the identification of the words in S/V/C patterns makes the identification of clauses much easier.
Twelve Sunday School Jokes Notes
No. 1 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 2 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 3 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 4 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 5 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 6 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 7 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 8 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 9 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 10 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 11 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
No. 12 Prep Phrases S/V/C Clauses -
Text From "The Fishhawk," McGuffey's Second Reader Notes
Part One Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Notes -
Part Two Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Notes -
Part Three Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Notes -

Ex. 1 (a - d) - Mixed Complements
Identifying Complements Identifying the Types of Complements
  A Flowchart for Identifying the Types
Examples of the Analytical Process
For Grades 2 - 4 For Grades 5-8 For Grades 9 - 11
     The preceding examples are included after the instructional materials for the noted grade levels.
Identifying Complements as Just Complements
From Blaisdell's "April Fool's Day" Ex # 1 Text AK ToC G2: IG1
From Blaisdell's "April Fool's Day" Ex # 2 Text AK ToC G2: IG1
From Blaisdell's "April Fool's Day" Ex # 3 Text AK ToC G2
From Blaisdell's "April Fool's Day" Ex # 4 Text AK ToC G2: IG1
From Ben and Alice Ex. 1 AK ToC IG2
From Ben and Alice Ex. 2 AK ToC IG2
Identifying the Types of Complements
From Smythe's Old-Time Stories # 1 AK ToC IB 2
From Smythe's Old-Time Stories # 2 AK ToC IB 2
From "Bobtail's Kite," by Mary Blaisdell Ex # 1 Text AK ToC G2
From "Bobtail's Kite," by Mary Blaisdell Ex # 2 " AK " "
From "Bobtail's Kite," by Mary Blaisdell Ex # 3 " AK " "
From "Bobtail's Kite," by Mary Blaisdell Ex # 4 " AK " "
From Bunny Rabbit’s Diary by Blaisdell Ex # 1 AK ToC G2
From Bunny Rabbit’s Diary by Blaisdell Ex # 2 AK " "
From Bunny Rabbit’s Diary by Blaisdell Ex # 3 AK " "
Ex # 1 from Potter's The Story of Miss Moppet Text AK ToC G3
Ex # 2 from Potter's The Story of Miss Moppet Text AK ToC G3
"Humpty Dumpty" AK ToC G3
"The Crooked Sixpence" AK ToC G3
Ex # 1 from Potter's The Tale of Benjamin Bunny Text AK ToC -
Ex # 2 from Potter's The Tale of Benjamin Bunny Text AK ToC -
Ex # 7 from Potter's The Tale of the Flopsy Bunnies Text AK ToC -
Ex # 4 from Potter's The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck Text AK ToC -
Ex # 2 from Potter's The Tale of Johnny Town Mouse Text AK ToC -
Ex # 4 from Potter's The Tale of Mr. Jeremy Fisher Text AK ToC -
Ex # 5 from Potter's The Tale of Mr. Jeremy Fisher Text AK ToC -
Ex # 6 from Potter's The Tale of the Pie and the Patty-Pan Text AK ToC -
Ex # 7 from Potter's The Tale of the Pie and the Patty-Pan Text AK ToC -
Ex # 7 from Potter's The Tale of Samuel Whiskers (Easy) Text AK ToC -
Ex # 8 from Potter's The Tale of Samuel Whiskers (Harder) Text AK ToC -
Ex # 9 from Potter's The Tale of Samuel Whiskers (Hardest) Text AK ToC -
Ex # 3 from Potter's The Tale of Tom Kitten Text AK ToC -
"Jonah and the Whale" Text AK ToC -
"The Birds of Killingworth" Text AK ToC G4
"The Poplar Tree," by Flora J. Cooke (S6) Text AK ToC G4
From "Jack and His Golden Box" Text AK ToC G4
Subject / Verb / Complement Patterns (Maxwell L1 01 27) - ToC -
From "Fritz and Dan -- In the Spring Pasture" Text AK ToC -
From Holbrook's "Why the Cat," Ex # 1 Text AK ToC G5
From Holbrook's "Why the Cat," Ex # 2 " AK " G5
From Holbrook's "Why the Cat," Ex # 3 Text AK ToC G5
From Holbrook's "The Story of the First Moles" Text AK ToC -
From Lang's "Thumbelina," Ex # 1 Text AK ToC  -
From Lang's "Thumbelina," Ex # 2 " AK " -
From Lang's "Thumbelina," Ex # 3 " AK " -
From Marshall's Robin Hood, Ex # 1 AK ToC -
From Marshall's Robin Hood, Ex # 2 AK " -
Mixed Complements (Maxwell L1 03 17) ToC -
Mixed Complements (Maxwell L1 03 18) ToC -
Mixed Complements (Maxwell L1 03 19) ToC -
Antonio Canova Text AK ToC -
Catherine Douglas Text AK ToC -
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett AK ToC G6
From the Writing of Sixth Graders AK ToC G6
From The Queen of the Pirate Isle, by Bret Harte AK ToC G6
From Heidi by Johanna Spyri AK ToC G6
Mixed Complements (Maxwell L1 03 20) ToC G7
From Stephen Crane's "The Blue Hotel" AK ToC -
Tom Swifties Ex # 3 AK ToC G7
Mixed Complements (Maxwell L1 03 21) ToC G8
Tom Swifties Ex # 1 AK ToC G8
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens (#1) AK ToC G8
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens (#2) AK ToC G8
Tom Swifties Ex # 4 AK ToC -
10 Sentences from a 9th Grader's Writing AK ToC G9
Charlemagne and the Charcoal-burner Text AK ToC G9
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens (#3) AK ToC G9
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC G9
Tom Swifties Ex # 5 AK ToC G10
Tom Swifties Ex # 6 AK ToC G11
Ex. 2 - A Focus on Predicate Adjectives
"The Ugly Duckling," by E. Louise Smythe Text AK ToC G2; IB2
From Blaisdell's "Bobby’s Party" Text AK ToC G2
Ex # 4 from Potter's Pie and the Patty-Pan Text AK ToC G3
"The Poplar Tree," by Flora J. Cooke (S5) Text AK ToC G4
From Marshall's  Robin Hood, Ex # 1 AK ToC G5
From Marshall's  Robin Hood, Ex # 2 AK ToC -
Predicate Adjectives (Maxwell L1 03 01) AK ToC G6
Predicate Adjectives (Maxwell L1 03 02) ToC G7
From Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans AK ToC G9
Predicate Adjectives (Maxwell L1 03 03) ToC -
Predicate Adjectives (Maxwell L1 03 04) ToC -
Ex. 3 - A Focus on Predicate Nouns
"The Ugly Duckling," by E. Louise Smythe Text AK ToC G2; IB2
From Blaisdell's  "Bobby’s Party" Text AK ToC G2
Based on Pinocchio, The Tale of a Puppet, by C. Collodi  AK ToC G3
"The Poplar Tree," by Flora J. Cooke (S5) Text AK ToC G4
From Marshall's Robin Hood, Ex # 1 AK ToC G5
From Marshall's Robin Hood, Ex # 2 AK ToC -
Predicate Nouns (Maxwell L1 03 05) AK ToC G6
Predicate Nouns (Maxwell L1 03 06) ToC G7
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC G9
Predicate Nouns [FiB] (Maxwell L1 03 07) ToC -
Predicate Nouns [FiB] (Maxwell L1 03 08) ToC -
Predicate Adjective or Predicate Noun? (Maxwell L1 03 09) ToC -
Predicate Adjective or Predicate Noun? (Maxwell L1 03 10) ToC -
Ex. 4 - A Focus on Direct Objects
Direct Objects [FiB] (Maxwell L1 03 13) ToC -
Direct Objects [FiB] (Maxwell L1 03 14) ToC -
Adding Direct Objects (Maxwell L1 03 15) ToC -
Based on Pinocchio, The Tale of a Puppet, by C. Collodi  AK ToC G3
Ex # 5 from Potter's Pie and the Patty-Pan Text AK ToC -
Ex # 6 from Potter's The Tale of Samuel Whiskers Text AK ToC -
"The Poplar Tree," by Flora J. Cooke (S5) Text AK ToC -
Vredenburg's "Snow-White and Rose-Red" Text AK ToC G4
From Heidi by Johanna Spyri  AK ToC G6
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC G9
Ex. 5 - A Focus on Indirect Objects
A Focus on Indirect Objects AK ToC G2
"The Ugly Duckling," by E. Louise Smythe Text AK ToC G2; IB2
From Blaisdell's  "Bobby’s Party" Text AK ToC G2
"Jack Sprat" AK ToC G2
"Betty Blue" AK " G2
"The Tarts" AK " -
A Focus on Indirect Objects  Ex 1 from Wonder Stories 3 AK  ToC G3
A Focus on Indirect Objects  Ex 2 from Wonder Stories 3 AK ToC -
Based on Pinocchio, The Tale of a Puppet, by C. Collodi AK ToC G4
From Marshall's Robin Hood, Ex # 1 AK ToC G5
From Marshall's Robin Hood, Ex # 2 AK ToC -
From Heidi by Johanna Spyri  AK ToC G6
Ex. 6 - A Focus on the Zero Complement
     This exercise is here because some of my students don't realize that a zero compplement still creates an S/V/C "pattern."
"The Ugly Duckling," by E. Louise Smythe Text AK ToC G2; IB2
From Blaisdell's "Bobby’s Party" Text AK ToC G2
Ex # 1 from Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit Text AK ToC  -
Ex # 2 from Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit " AK "  - 
Ex # 3 from Potter's Pie and the Patty-Pan Text AK ToC  G3
"The Poplar Tree," by Flora J. Cooke (S5) Text AK ToC G4
From Marshall's Robin Hood, Ex # 2 AK  ToC G5
From Heidi by Johanna Spyri AK ToC G6
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC G9
From The Call of the Wild, by Jack London AK ToC G10
Ex. 7 - Verbs as Subjects or Complements
[Instructional Material]
From G. MacDonald's At the Back of the North Wind AK ToC G3; IB2
Based on Pinocchio, by C. Collodi AK ToC G4; IB2
From Heidi by Johanna Spyri AK ToC G6
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC G9
Ex. 8 - Predicate Adjective or Part of the Verb?
Instructional Material Background for Teachers
Ex # 1 from The Tale of Samuel Whiskers Text AK ToC G3; IG 4
Ex # 2 from The Tale of Samuel Whiskers Text AK ToC -
Ex # 4 from The Tale of Benjamin Bunny Text AK ToC -
From "The Birds of Killingworth" (Ex # 3) Text AK ToC G4
Passive Verbs - From "The Three Tasks" Ex # 3 Text AK ToC G5
From "The Nightingale," (#1) by Andersen Text AK ToC G6
From "The Nightingale," (#2) by Andersen Text AK ToC G9
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC G10
Ex. 9 - Writing Sentences with Complements
Right now, the same exercise is in every grade level.
* Writing Sentences with Complements (Maxwell L1 03 16) ToC
Ex. 10 - A Passage for Analysis
"The Ugly Duckling," by E. Louise Smythe Text AK ToC G2; IB2
Ex # 5 from Burgess's "Why Jimmy Skunk Wears Stripes" AK ToC G3
From "Two Dogs" (McGuffey's) Ex # 1 Text AK ToC  -
From "Two Dogs" (McGuffey's) Ex # 2 " AK " -
Ex. 2 from Mrs. Piggle-Wiggle, by Betty MacDonald AK ToC G4
From Chapter 22 of Heidi by Johanna Spyri AK ToC G6
Ex # 1 from The King Must Die, by Mary Renault AK ToC G9
Ex. 11 - Just for Fun - Mixed Complements
Tongue Twisters, Ex # 1 AK ToC G3
"The Pastor and the Bear" AK ToC G5
Tongue Twisters, Ex # 2 AK ToC G6
Quotations about Cats AK ToC G7
Tongue Twisters, Ex # 3 AK ToC G9