Feb. 13, 2014
Printable Books The KISS Grammar Home Page

KISS Level 2.3 - Adding Three Level Five Constructions:
Nouns Used as Adverbs, Interjections, and Direct Address

Notes for Teachers
Ex 1 - Nouns Used as Adverbs
Ex 2 - Simple Interjections
Ex 3 - A Study in the Punctuation of Interjections
Ex 4 - Direct Address
Ex 5 - A Study in the Punctuation of Direct Address
Ex 6 - Mixed Exercises
Ex 7 - Treasure Hunts/Recipe Rosters
An Advanced Question -- "the sooner ... the better"
Notes for Teachers

     These concepts are optional in the sense that students do not need to understand them in order to advance to KISS Level Two. Thus, for example, if you are trying to start the KISS Approach with middle school students and you want to enable the students to be able to identify clauses, you should probably skip these concepts. On the other hand, if you are beginning in primary school, you have plenty of time to include these concepts. The concepts, moreover, explain constructions that are frequently used in narrative writing, which is typically what primary students are asked to do. Because these constructions are so simple, the instructional materials and exercises are included here, even though they are technically Level Five Constructions. Nouns Used as Adverbs are very simple and raise few questions. 
     Interjections are the most complex of the three. For one, they slide into adverbs. Consider the following two sentences:

a.) Duh, do you think so?
b.) Really, do you think so?
"Duh" is an obvious interjection, but many grammarians would consider "really" as an adverb, especially since it can be moved in the sentence -- "Do you really think so?" This is, however, just a question of how the words should be named (categorized). As always in cases like this, KISS allows either explanation.
     More debatable is that KISS considers some prepositional phrases to be functioning as interjections:
{Of course} he voted in the last election.
{In fact}, he voted in the last election.
One can, in KISS, explain such phrases as adverbs, but when the phrase modifies the sentence as a whole, rather than a specific word or construction within the sentence, KISS accepts either explanation. (Many linguists call these "sentence modifiers.) Still more debatable is the KISS explanation of some clauses as interjections. (See KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?)
     Direct Address ("Sally, close the door.") is, if one thinks about it, a specific type of interjection. As such, it could be dropped from the KISS toolbox, but the concept is so simple, and it is so widely used in grammar textbooks, that it seemed better to keep it.
     Exercises three and five are devoted to punctuation, but they can also be used as a second exercise on interjections and direct address, respectively.
 
Suggested Directions for Analytical Exercises
1. Place parentheses (around each prepositional phrase). 
2. Underline every finite verb twice, every subject once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”). 
3. Label each interjection (“Inj”), each example of Direct Address (“DirA”), and every noun used as an adverb (“NuA”). [As appropriate]
Probable Time Required:
     For most students, these should require only one or two simple exercises.
Exercise # 1 - Nouns Used as Adverbs
Instructional Material
From Laughing-Eyes AK ToC IG2
Exercise #1 (from the writing of 3rd and 7th graders) AK ToC G3; IG3
Exercise #2 (from the writing of 3rd and 7th graders) AK ToC G4
From Stories of Robin Hood Told to the Children AK ToC G5
From Heidi, by Johanna Spyri AK ToC G6
From Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle AK ToC G9
From The Call of the Wild, by Jack London AK ToC G10

Passages

From Lang's "Thumbelina," Ex # 1 Text AK ToC -
From Lang's "Thumbelina," Ex # 2 Text AK ToC -
From Lang's "Thumbelina,"Ex # 3 Text AK ToC -
Exercise # 2 - Simple Interjections
Instructional Material Notes for Teachers
An Exercise on Interjections AK ToC IG2
Interjections from the Witing of Third Graders AK ToC G3; IG3
Interjections [Fill in the Blanks] (Maxwell L5 3 01) ToC G4
From Lang's "Thumbelina" Text AK ToC G4
Interjections [Fill in the Blanks] (Maxwell L5 3 02) ToC G5
From Stories of Robin Hood Told to the Children AK ToC G5
From Heidi, by Johanna Spyri AK ToC G6
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC G9
Exercise # 3 - A Study in the Punctuation of Interjections
From E. B. White's Stuart Little (#1) AK ToC G3
From E. B. White's Stuart Little (#2) AK ToC G4
An Exercise on the Punctuation of Interjections AK ToC G6
Exercise # 4 - Direct Address
Instructional Material
From The Haliburton First Reader AK ToC IG2
An Exercise on Direct Address AK ToC G3; IG3
Rain, rain, go away AK ToC G3
"Little Boy Blue" AK ToC G3
From Lang's Thumbelina Text AK ToC G4
From Robin Hood  AK ToC G5
Based on George Macdonald's At the Back of the North Wind AK ToC G6
At the Theatre (Humor) AK ToC G8
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC G9
From Ben and Alice (includes quotations as complements) AK ToC IG2
Exercise # 5 - 
A Study in the Punctuation of Direct Address
An Exercise on the Punctuation of Direct Address AK ToC G3
From Voyages in English (#1) AK ToC G4
From Voyages in English (#2) AK ToC G6
Exercise # 6 - Mixed Exercises
From The Haliburton First Reader AK ToC IG1
Ex # 20 from Potter's The Tale of Samuel Whiskers Text AK ToC G3
From "Jack and His Golden Box" Text AK ToC G4
From Marshall's Robin Hood AK ToC G5
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett AK ToC G6
From "The Twelve Months,"by Chodzko Text AK ToC G7
Tom Swifties AK ToC G8
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC G9
Exercise # 7 - Treasure Hunts/Recipe Rosters
a. Find and bring to class (or write)  a sentence that has a noun used as an adverb in it.
b. Find and bring to class (or write)  a sentence that has an interjectionin it.
c. Find and bring to class (or write) a sentence that has an example of direct address in it.
d. Find and bring to class (or write)  a sentence that has a noun used as an adverb, two  prepositional phrases, and a direct object.
An Advanced Question -- "the sooner ... the better"

     In a few cases we have the rather odd case of adverbs functioning as nouns that function as adverbs. Consider, for example,

The sooner he leaves, the better it will be.
“Sooner” is normally considered an adverb, but it can function as a noun. Imagine a case in which someone says, “He will leave sooner than he intended.” And someone else responds — “Sooner is not good enough. I want him to leave now.” Clearly, “sooner” functions as a noun subject of “is.” Likewise in “the sooner ... the better,” the adjective “the” designates “sooner” as a noun, but it still functions as an adverbs to “leaves.” And similarly, “the” designates “better” as a noun, but it functions as an adverb to the previous “the sooner.”