March 15, 2014
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KISS Level 3.1.2. Adding Subordinate Clauses

Notes for Teachers
Exercises in KISS Level 3.1.2
Mixed Subordinate Clauses
Subordinate Clauses as Direct Objects
Adverbial Clauses
Adjectival Clauses
Other Noun Clauses
    See KISS Level 6.2 Style -- Focus, Logic, and Texture.for exercises on: Parallel Constructions, Focus, Logic, and Texture.
     See also KISS Level 6.3 - Sentence-Combining Exercises.
Some Advanced Questions
Notes for Teachers

     The ability to untangle subordinate clauses may be the most important thing that most students need from a formal study of grammar. Once they can do so, and once they understand the idea of chunking, they can understand almost all the “errors” that are typically worried about -- comma-splices, run-ons, and fragments are all clause boundary errors. But beyond errors, the ability to identify and discuss clauses will enable students to explore major areas of logic and style. These are, I would suggest, more important than the primary KISS objective -- the ability to explain every word in every text. 
     Yes, students will know and do more, if they can identify the types of verbals (gerunds, gerundives, and infinitives), appositives, and noun absolutes, but an understanding of those constructions will not help students much if they cannot untangle the clauses in any sentence. This section explains the most frequently used types of clauses -- those that function as simple nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. More complicated (and less frequent) clauses are introduced in KISS Level 3.2.
     The exercises at this level (3.1.2) consist almost entirely of "Level-One" clauses -- generally one subordinate clause within a main clause. Clauses are, however, frequently embedded within clauses, as in:

They knew [that the man [who stole Sunday] was a magician].

Many students are amazed to learn that there can be clauses within clauses. KISS Level 3.1.3 focuses on untangling embedded clauses.

Two Approaches to Teaching Clauses -- Learning Curves

     The question here is how and how quickly does one introduce students to the kinds and embedding of clauses. The question implies a continuum, not an “either/or” distinction. In essence, it is a question of learning curves -- gradual or steep. I myself prefer the steep curve because it requires students to learn and apply an analytical procedure that they will need anyway (to untangle sentences that include multiple subordinate clauses). Ultimately, it is also faster. The other primary advantage of the steep curve approach is that it forces students to think, right from the beginning. The exercises in this level are organized to address both learning curves.

The Steep Curve Approach

     In the steepest of the steep-curve approaches, students are introduced to clauses, main and subordinate and embedding, all at the same time. They are given the instructional material and told to follow the analytical procedure:

Identify prepositional phrases, and then S/V/C patterns. For every S/V/C pattern, there is a clause. Check for conjunctions and compounding. Check for subordinating conjunctions, and then, if all the clauses are not explained, begin with the last S/V/C pattern and work your way backward. Find the first and last words in the clause, and determine how the clause functions—noun, adjective, or adverb.
This approach works, but teachers have to expect initial confusion (and errors) from the students until they get the hang of it. Most students' difficulty here is not really with KISS and grammar. It is much more fundamental -- they have not been taught how to solve multi-step problems.
     In KISS Level 1.2, it was explained that in Endangered Minds: Why Children Don't Think--and What We Can Do About It, Jane Healy discusses the following question (p. 189):

As the figure notes, "Only 6.4% of the 17-year-olds could solve multi-step problems like this one."
     Perhaps the most fundamental weakness in most education is the focus on “knowing what” rather than on “knowing how” to solve multi-step problems. Math teachers, for example, regularly struggle, trying to get the students to follow the procedures (steps) for solving problems. At the college level, the problems are more wide-spread. Particularly in the technical areas, professors complain that students seem to think that either one knows the answer or one does not. Many students refuse to learn the steps (the “how”) to solve problems. But in the technological world in which we live, all the important problems require multi-step processes for their solution.
     Most grammar books, of course, teach “what,” not “how.” But if you have been working with the KISS Approach, you have already seen one procedure — the steps for determining complements. The procedure for distinguishing the types of clauses simply builds upon that one, but I cannot overly emphasize its importance. The KISS Approach, in other words, not only helps students to learn how to identify clauses fairly easily and quickly -- it also helps students understand the importance of multi-step thinking.
     To use the steep leaning curve,  have your students use the analytical procedure and do the exercises in the first section, "Mixed Subordinate Clauses." If they can do them, you can skip the exercises that focus just on noun clauses as direct objects, on adverbial clauses, and those on adjectival clauses. (You may, however, want to have them do some of the combining and logic exercises in those sections.) 

The Gradual Curve

     If the steep curve seems to be too steep, start with the sections on the various types of clauses. In them, students are first  introduced to noun clauses that function as direct objects. The reasons for this are simple: 1.) subordinate clauses that function as direct objects are very common, and 2.) these students have already been taught to look for and identify the complements of verbs. In a sentence such as “We asked if we could go to the park,” students are going to look for the complement of “asked” by asking “Asked what? They can meaningfully see that the answer to that question is “if we could go to the park.” Having studied compound man clauses, and thus having a sense of what a “clause” is, they can understand that “if we could go to the park” is a clause and that it functions as the direct object of “asked.” This approach, therefore, should clarify rather than confuse them.
    The next section focuses on adverbial clauses (because the conjunctions are relatively easy to identify), and the next is  on adjectival clauses. KISS instructional materials include a “special focus” on what are called “mid-branching” adjectival clauses simply because some students are confused by them. “Mid-branching” means that the subordinate clause appears between the subject and verb of the main clause. (“Left-branching” appear before the main clause, and “right branching” appear after.) “Branching” raises some interesting stylistic questions, but the point here is that in a sentence such as “The man who stole Sunday was a magician,” many students will look at “stole” and see “man” as its subject. They are not accustomed to seeing an S/V/C pattern between a subject and its verb. Thus KISS has a few exercises to help them -- if they need them. Students are then introduced to the less frequently used other noun clauses -- objects of prepositions, subjects, and predicate nouns.
    If you are using this approach, you can then go back to the "Mixed" section as a general "bringing it all together."

Suggested Directions for Analytical Exercises
1. Place parentheses ( ) around each prepositional phrase.
2. Underline verbs twice, their subjects once, and label complements (“PA,” “PN,” “IO,” or “DO”).
3. Place brackets [ ] around each subordinate clause. If the clause functions as a noun, label its function. If it functions as an adjective or adverb, draw an arrow from the opening bracket to the word that the clause modifies.
4. Place a vertical line after each main clause. 

Probable Time Required: See the Introduction.
 
Exercises in Level 3.1.2
Mixed Level One Clauses
     The sentences in these exercises all contain more than one type of clause. As a result, students will have to do more thinking as they do these exercises.
The Functions of Subordinate Clauses
Identifying Clauses - The Procedure

Mixed, Ex 1 a - f : Identification
“Why the Woodpecker’s Head Is Red” Ex # 1 (Holbrook) (S7) Text AK ToC G4
“Why the Woodpecker’s Head Is Red” Ex # 2 (Holbrook) (S 6)   "  AK " G4
From "The Nightingale," by H. C. Andersen (S 7) Text AK ToC G4
"The Poplar Tree," by Flora J. Cooke (S 6) Text AK ToC G4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders (# 1) (S 7) AK ToC G4; IG4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders (# 2) (S 7) AK ToC G4; IG4
Mixed L1 Clauses (From "Thumbelina" S 5) Text AK ToC -
From "Sally Migrundy," by Johnny Gruelle (S 7) Text AK ToC G5
From Kipling's "The Crab That Played with the Sea" (103 W) AK ToC G5
From Kipling's "How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin" (122 W) AK ToC G5
From "Jack and His Golden Box" Text AK ToC G5
Tongue Twisters Ex # 1 AK ToC G5; IG4
Mixed Subordinate Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 18) ToC -
From "How Brave Walter Hunted Wolves" (Lang; S 7) Text AK ToC G6
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett AK ToC G6
Tongue Twisters Ex # 2 AK ToC G6
From The Queen of the Pirate Isle, by Bret Harte AK ToC G6
From the Writing of Sixth Graders AK ToC G6
From Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland AK ToC G6
A Man and His Dog - Ex # 1 (Humor S 5)) Text AK ToC -
"A Man and His Dog" - Ex # 2 (Humor) Text AK ToC -
Famous Quotations about Time AK ToC G7
Adjectival and Adverbial Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 14) ToC G7
Tongue Twisters Ex # 3 AK ToC G7
"How Horatius Kept the Bridge" Text AK ToC G7RWS
Mixed Subordinate Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 19) ToC G8
Analogies Found in High School Writing AK ToC G8
Adjectival and Adverbial Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 15) ToC G8
Mixed Subordinate Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 20) AK ToC 1YM
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 1 Text AK ToC G9
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 2 " AK " -
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg,"Ex # 3 " AK " -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 1 AK ToC G9
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 2 AK " G9
Mr. Teddy and Mr. Fiend (Riddle 125 W) AK ToC G9
10 Sentences from a 9th Grader's Writing Text AK ToC G9
From the Writing of 9th Graders  AK ToC G9
Mixed Subordinate Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 21) ToC G10
Mixed Subordinate Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 22) ToC G11
Mixed, Ex 2 a and b: Rewriting Subordinate Clauses
as Main
and Main as Subordinate
Instructional Material:
Rewriting Subordinate Clauses as Main or Main as Subordinate
From "Making the Best of It" Text AK ToC G4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders AK ToC G4
From the Writing of Sixth Graders AK ToC G6; IG 6
From "Perseus," by Charles Kingsley AK ToC G6
From E. Nesbit's "Pericles," Ex. # 1 AK ToC G9
From E. Nesbit's "Pericles," Ex. # 2 AK ToC G9
From Ouida's A Dog of Flanders AK ToC G10
From "Harrow," by Winston Churchill Text AK ToC G11
From "Harrow," by Winston Churchill Text AK ToC G11

Mixed, Ex 3 a and b: The Logic of Subordinate Clauses
Instructional Material: The Logic of Subordinate Clauses
Notes for Teachers
For the additional exercises in the P/A sections, click here.
a
From Vredenburg's Favorite Fairy Tales AK ToC G4
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett (#1) AK ToC G6
Subordinating Clauses and Logic (Maxwell L 3.1.2 23) AK ToC 1YM

b
Rewriting Main Clauses as Subordinate:

From Holbrook's  "The Face of the Manito" Text AK ToC 1YM

 
Mixed, Ex 4: A Passage for Analysis
From Vredenburg's "The Sleeping Beauty" Text AK ToC G4; IG5
From Kipling's "The Elephant's Child" (125 W) AK ToC G5; IG5
From Chapter Nine of Blue Willow, by Doris Gates AK ToC G6
In addition to some verbals, this selection includes a noun clause used as the object of a preposition (in a fragment) and a noun clause used as a subject.
Ex # 2 from Nina Bawden's Carrie's War AK ToC G8
From Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans AK  ToC G9a
Shakespeare's Sonnet # 18 "Shall I compare thee" AK  ToC G9b
No. 1 from  A Dog of Flanders by Ouida AK ToC -
No. 2 from A Dog of Flanders by Ouida AK ToC -
No. 3 from A Dog of Flanders by Ouida AK ToC -
From William Golding's "Thinking as a Hobby" (#4) Text AK ToC G11
Mixed, Ex 5 a and b: Style - Parallel Subordinate Clauses
These two exercises are in all of the grade-level books.
Abraham Lincoln's "The Gettysburg Address" AK ToC * G4 +; IG5
From Kipling's "The Butterfly That Stamped" AK ToC * G4 +; IG5; 1YM
Mixed, Ex 6: Style - Parallel Subordinate Clauses
See also Level 6.2
"The Loveliest Town of All," from Stuart Little, by E. B. White (Sub Clauses) Original AK ToC G4; IG5
From Vredenburg's "Princess Goldenhair" (Sub Clauses) Original AK ToC G5
From "Endicott and the Red Cross," by Nathaniel Hawthorne (Sub Clauses) AK ToC G6; IG6
From "The Happy Prince," by Oscar Wilde AK ToC G8
The Opening Two Paragraphs of Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities  AK ToC G9; IG10; 1YM
Noun Clauses as Direct Objects
     For students who can identify subjects, finite verbs, and complements, noun clauses that function as direct objects should be more of a clarification that a source of confusion, especially if they have been analyzing randomly selected texts. They will frequently have seen sentences such as "Paul thought the game was fun." They know, of course, that "the game" does not completely answer the question "Whom or what?" after "thought," but what, grammatically is the real answer - "the game was fun"? Now they will know that it is a noun clause that functions as a direct object.
     With one possible exception, the only thing that may confuse students is how to deal with quotations as direct objects when the quotations themselves contain multiple main clauses. Consider sentence:
Then the gentle Spirit of Fire called, “Come back, my flames, come back again! The people in the village will not know that you are in a frolic, and they will be afraid.”
The quotation that functions, semantically (meaningfully), as the direct object of "called" consists of four main clauses. In some cases, you may find entire paragraphs that function as the direct object of a single verb. This is a question that I have never seen addressed in a grammar textbook. Obviously, we cannot process entire paragraphs in short-term memory. 
     The KISS way of handling this is to consider the end of the first main clause as the end of a main clause. In other words, syntactically (as opposed to semantically) the first main clause in the quotation functions as the direct object of "called," and each of the following main clauses is then marked with a vertical line. (See the instructional material.) A related, but probably less frequent question arises when the "said" pattern appears somewhere in the middle of the quotation (or indirect speech). See KISS Level 3.2.3 - Interjection? Or Direct Object?
     Following two exercises on identifying simple noun clauses as direct objects, the third exercise addresses quotations  (with multiple main clauses) as direct objects of a single verb. This exercise is followed by a  "Treasure Hunt/Recipe Roster."
N DO, Ex 1 a and b: Identification
From "Grandfather Skeeter Hawk’s Story," by Johnny Gruelle (S10) Text AK ToC G3O
From "The Story of the First Ants," by Florence Holbrook (S11) Text AK ToC -
From "The Fairy Ring," by Johnny Gruelle Text AK ToC G3O
From "The Old, Rough Stone and the Gnarled Tree," by Johnny Gruelle Text AK ToC G3O
Indirect Objects with Subordinate Clauses as Direct Objects (Wonder Stories 3) (S 9) AK ToC -
"The Birds of Killingworth"(S5) Text AK ToC G4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders (S10) AK ToC G4
"The Poplar Tree," by Flora J. Cooke (S5) Text AK ToC -
From Freeman's "Jack and His Golden Box" Text AK ToC G5
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC G6
From the Writing of Sixth Graders AK ToC G6
From Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg" Ex # 1 Text AK ToC -
From Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg" Ex # 2 " AK " G8
From Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg" Ex # 3 " AK " -
From Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg" Ex # 4 " AK " -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida (S 8) AK ToC G9
Famous Quotations (S 10) AK ToC G10
N DO, Ex 2: Quotations as Direct Objects
Instructional Material
From Vredenburg's My Favorite Fairy Tales AK ToC G4: IG4
From “The Story of the First Hummingbird,” by Florence Holbrook (3S) Text AK ToC G6; IG4; 1YM
N DO, Ex 3: Treasure Hunt (and/or Recipe Roster) 
     Treasure Hunt (and/or Recipe Roster): Find and bring to class (and/or write) a sentence that has a clause used as a direct object.
     Creating an Exercise: In a story or book that you like, find five sentences that have noun clauses used as direct objects. For your classmates, make an exercise with them; for your teacher, make an analysis key. (Remember that your teacher may use your exercise in future years.)
Adverbial Subordinate Clauses
Adverb, Ex 1 a - d: Identification
From "The Happy Rattle," by Jphnny Gruelle Ex # 1 (S 5) Text AK ToC G4
From "The Happy Rattle," by Johnny Gruelle Ex # 2 (S 4) " AK " G4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders (S 10 Easy) AK ToC G4; IG4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders (S 10 Harder) AK ToC G4, IG4
From “The Story of the First Hummingbird,” by Florence Holbrook (S 9) Text AK ToC IG4
From "Jack and His Golden Box" Ex # 1 (S 5) Text AK ToC G5
From "Jack and His Golden Box" Ex # 2 (S 5) " AK " G5
Adverbial Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 10) ToC -
Ex # 1 from "Sally Migrundy," by J. Gruelle (S 7) Text AK ToC G5
Ex # 2 from "Sally Migrundy," by J. Gruelle (S 7) " AK " -
Ex # 3 from "Sally Migrundy," by J. Gruelle (S 7) " AK " -
Ex # 4 from "Sally Migrundy," by J. Gruelle (S 7) " AK " -
Adverbial Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 11) ToC -
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett AK ToC G6
Adverbial  Clauses - Ex # 1 (5 Quotations) AK ToC G6
From The Queen of the Pirate Isle, by Bret Harte AK ToC G6
From the Writing of Sixth Graders AK ToC G6
Hans Anderson, from the Snow Queen, 2nd story AK ToC -
Hans Anderson, from the Snow Queen, 4th story AK ToC -
Adverbial  Clauses - Ex # 1 (10 Quotations) AK ToC G7
From S. Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 1 (S 5) Text AK ToC -
From S. Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 2 (S 5) " AK " G8
From S. Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 3 (S 5) " AK " G8
From S. Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 4 (S 3) " AK " -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 1 (S 6) AK ToC
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 2 (S 5) AK " -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 3 (S 5) AK " -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 4 (S 5) AK " G9
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 5 (S 3) AK " -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 6 (S 2) ;) AK " -
Tom Swifties # 4 (Adverbs - and Interjections) (S 5) AK ToC  G9
From The Call of the Wild, by Jack London AK ToC G9
From the Writing of 9th Graders AK ToC G9
Adverb, Ex 2: Sentence-Building
- Adding Adverbial Clauses
From "Snow-White," by Edric  Vredenburg ToC G4
Adapted from Voyades in English ToC IG5
Adding Adverbial Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 12) ToC G5
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight ToC G6
Adding Adverbial Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 13) ToC G7
Based on The Call of the Wild, by Jack London ToC G9
Adverb, Ex 3 a and b: Rewriting Adverbial Clauses as Main and Main as Adverbial
From"The Three Tasks," adapted from Grimm Text AK ToC G4; IG5
From "Snow-White," by Edric  Vredenburg Text AK ToC G4; IG5
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC G6; 1YM
From the Writing of Sixth Graders AK ToC G6
Adverb, Ex 4: The Logic of Adverbial Clauses
 (ID - Ten Sentences)
See the instructional material under "Mixed Clauses."
Adverbial Clauses  (Maxwell L 3.1.2 24) AK ToC -
From the Writing of Fourth Graders (Comparison, Purpose ? Result) AK ToC G4
10 Sentences from Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC G6; 1YM
Adverbial Clauses (Cause/Effect)  (Maxwell L 3.1.2 25) ToC -
Adverb, Ex 5: The Logic of Adverbial Clauses
(Combining Five Sentences)
From "Snow-White," by Edric  Vredenburg Text AK ToC G4
5 Sentences from Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC G6; 1YM
Adverb, Ex 6: A Passage for Analysis
Aesop's "The Young Crab and His Mother" (Milo) AK ToC G4
The Opening 66 Words of "Jack and His Golden Box"
[Three subordinate clauses; no verbals]
Text AK ToC G5
From "How the Alphabet Was Made," by Rudyard Kipling AK ToC G6
Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice (5.1.91-95) AK ToC  G9
Exercise 7: Treasure Hunt (and/or Recipe Roster)
     Treasure Hunt (and/or Recipe Roster): Find and bring to class (and/or write) a sentence that has an adverbial subordinate clause in it.
     Creating an Exercise: In a story or book that you like, find five sentences that have subordinate clauses used as adverbs. For your classmates, make an exercise with them; for your teacher, make an analysis key. (Remember that your teacher may use your exercise in future years.)

 
Adjectival Subordinate Clauses
Adjectival, Ex 1 a - c: Identification
Adjectival Clauses [FiB] (Maxwell L 3.1.2 03) ToC -
Adjectival Clauses [FiB] (Maxwell L 3.1.2 04) ToC -
Ex # 7 from The Tale of Johnny Town Mouse Text AK ToC -
From Lang's "Thumbelina" Ex # 1 Text AK ToC G4
From Lang's "Thumbelina" Ex # 2 Text AK ToC -
From"The Three Tasks," adapted from Grimm (S 5) Text AK ToC G4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders # 2 (S 5) AK ToC G4, IG4
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess (#1) AK ToC IG4
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess (#2) AK ToC IG4
Ex # 12 from The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck Text AK ToC -
Adverbial and Adjectival Clauses (Lang's "Thumbelina") Text AK ToC -
Ex # 5 From "Why the Cat always Falls upon her Feet" (Holbrooks' Nature Myths) Text AK ToC -
From “The Story of the First Hummingbird,” by Florence Holbrook (S 6) Text AK ToC -
From "Jack and His Golden Box" Text AK ToC G5
Ex # 1 from "Sally Migrundy," by Johnny Gruelle Text AK ToC G5
Ex # 2 from "Sally Migrundy," by Johnny Gruelle " AK " -
Adjectival Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 05) ToC -
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett AK ToC G6
Adjectival  Clauses (Quotations) - Ex # 1 (S 5) AK ToC G6
Adjectival Clauses From the Writing of Sixth Graders AK ToC G6
Adjectival Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 06) ToC G7
Humorous Definitions (Ex # 1) AK ToC G8
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 1 (S4) Text AK ToC -
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg,"Ex # 2 (S4) " AK " -
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 3 (S 4) " AK " -
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 4 (S 4) " AK " -
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 5 (S 4) " AK " G8
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 6 (S 4) " AK " -
Sherwood Anderson's "The Egg," Ex # 7 (S 3) " AK " -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 1 (S 5) AK ToC -
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 3 (S 5) AK " G9
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida, Ex # 4 (S 5) AK " -
From the Writing of Ninth Graders AK ToC G9
Adjectival  Clauses - Ex # 1 (Quotations) AK ToC G9
Tom Swifties # 5 (Adjectives- and Interjections) AK ToC -
Merchant of Venice (Quotations) (1.1.74-75) AK ToC -
Merchant of Venice (Quotations)  (2.6.36-37) AK " -
Adjectival, Ex 2: Mid-Branching Adjectival Clauses 
From"The Three Tasks," adapted from Grimm Text AK ToC G4; IG4
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess AK ToC IG4
From "The Nightingale," by H.C. Andersen Text AK ToC G5
Mid-Branching Adjectival Clauses - Ex 1 AK ToC G6
From Ouida's A Dog of Flanders AK ToC G9
Adjectival, Ex 3: Sentence-Building 
- Adding Adjectival Clauses 

 
From "Snow-White," by Edric  Vredenburg Text ToC G4: IG5

 
Adding Adjectival Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 08) ToC G5
Adding Adjectival Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 09) ToC G6
Adjectival, Ex 4 a and b:
Punctuating Adjectival Clauses and Other Modifiers
[The KISS Perspective on Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Modifiers]
     The "Short Essay," above is included in the Level 3.1.2 booklet. The two items below are in the Level 3.1.2  "grade-level" workbooks.
IM for Students Notes for Teachers
Adjectival  Clauses (Quotations) - Ex # 1 (S 10 - All Restrictive) AK ToC -
From "Snow-White," by Edric  Vredenburg Text AK ToC G4
From the Writing of Fourth Graders # 1 (S 10) AK ToC G4
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess (#1) AK ToC G5; IG5
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess (#2) AK ToC G5; IG5
From "Perseus," by Charles Kingsley AK ToC G6
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC G6
Adjectival Clauses  (Restrictive and Non-Restrictive) (Maxwell L 3.1.2 07) ToC G7
From The Call of the Wild, by Jack London AK ToC G9
Adjectival, Ex 5 a and b:
Rewriting Adjectival Clauses as Main
and Main as Adjectival
From E. Smythe's Old-time Stories, Fairy Tales and Myths AK ToC G4
From Vredenburg's "Princess Goldenhair" Text AK ToC G4; IG5
From Vredenburg's My Book of Favorite Fairy Tales AK ToC G5
From Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland AK ToC G6; 1YM
From "Perseus," by Charles Kingsley AK ToC G6
From The Last of the Mohicans, by James Fenimore Cooper AK ToC G9
Adjectival, Ex 6: A Passage for Analysis
Aesop's "The Fox and the Grapes" (Milo) AK ToC G4
The Opening of Chapter 15 of Johanna Spyri's Heidi AK ToC G6
Shakespeare's Sonnet # 130 "My mistress' eyes" AK  ToC  G9
Shakespeare's Sonnet # 73 "That time of year" AK ToC G10
Shakespeare's Sonnet # 94 "They that have power to hurt" AK  ToC  G11
Exercise 7: Treasure Hunt (and/or Recipe Roster)
     Treasure Hunt (and/or Recipe Roster): Find and bring to class (and/or write) a sentence that has an adjectival subordinate clause in it.
     Creating an Exercise: In a story or book that you like, find five sentences that have subordinate clauses used as adjectives. For your classmates, make an exercise with them; for your teacher, make an analysis key. (Remember that your teacher may use your exercise in future years.)
Other Noun Clauses
Adding Noun Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 16) ToC -
Adding Noun Clauses (Maxwell L 3.1.2 17) ToC -
Noun, Ex 1 a and b: Identification (Mixed)
From the Writing of Fourth Graders (S 8) AK ToC G4; IG4
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess AK ToC G4; IG5
From Johanna Spyri's Heidi AK ToC G6
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC G6
Famous Quotations (S 5) AK ToC G8
Two Unusual Noun Clauses from "Pericles," by E. Nesbit Text AK ToC -
    In the first sentence, a noun clause functions as a subject; in the second, as an object of a preposition. Note that the second sentence has a subordinate clause within the noun clause.
From A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens AK ToC G9; 1YM
From The Master of Ballantrae, by R. L. Stevenson AK ToC G9
Mixed - From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida (102 W) AK ToC -
Mixed Noun Claues - Tom Swifties (S 5) AK ToC G10
From Advent of Dying by Sister Carol Anne O'Marie AK ToC G10

Passages

Ex # 3 from "The Little Match Girl," by H. C. Andersen  Text AK ToC -
Noun, Ex 2: Noun Clauses as Objects of Prepositions
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess AK ToC G4; IG4
Ex # 1 from Black Beauty by Anna Sewell AK ToC G6
From The Master of Ballantrae, by R. L. Stevenson AK ToC G9
From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida (S 3) AK ToC -
From "The Lost Phoebe," by Theodore Dreiser (S 3) AK ToC G10
Noun, Ex 3: Noun Clauses as Subjects
From Vredenburg's My Book of Favorite Fairy Tales AK ToC G4; IG4
Noun Clauses as Subjects (Famous Quotations) AK ToC G6
Tom Swifties (As Subjects - S 5) AK ToC G8
From The Master of Ballantrae, by R. L. Stevenson AK ToC G9
Noun, Ex 4: Noun Clauses as Predicate Nouns
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess (#1) AK ToC G4
From Mrs. Peter Rabbit, by Thornton Burgess (#2) AK ToC IG4
From Lassie, Come Home, by Eric Knight AK ToC G6
Noun Clauses as Predicate Nouns (Famous Quotations) AK ToC G7
As Subject or PN - From A Dog of Flanders by Ouida AK ToC G9
Noun, Ex 5: Treasure Hunts (and/or Recipe Rosters)
Noun Clauses as Objects of a Preposition
     Find and bring to class (and/or write) two sentences that have a subordinate clause used as the object of a preposition.
Noun Clauses as Subjects
     In a book that you like, find two sentences that include noun clauses used as subjects. For your classmates, make an exercise with them; for your teacher, make an analysis key. These clauses are not easy to find, so your teacher may have you work in groups to do this, perhaps by having each student search a different chapter of the same book. (Remember that your teacher may use your exercise in future years.)
Predicate Nouns
     Find and bring to class (and/or write) two sentences that have a subordinate clause used as a predicate noun.
Some Advanced Questions

The Dual Functions of Some Subordinate Conjunctions

     This is, perhaps, a minor point, but at least one "grammarinan" (I believe it was on the ATEG list.) claimed that subordinating conjunctions do not have a function within their clauses. That is true of some of the adverbial conjunctions ("because," "since," "so"), but it is definitely not true of conjunctions like "who," "whom," "whose," "which," and "that."

     Consider, for example, the sentences:

1. That is the girl who won the game.
2. She is the woman whom I met yesterday.
3. That is the person whom I was thinking of.
4. That is the book that they were talking about.
5. It is a problem about which much has been written.
We use "who" in the first, and "whom" in the second, precisely because the conjunctions DO have a function within their clauses. No one would accept "That is the girl whom won the game" as an acceptable sentence.
     In (3), Standard American English considers "whom" the "proper" form precisely because it functions simultaneously the subordinating conjunction and the object of the preposition "of." By analogy, in (4) "that " is simultaneously the subordinating conjunction and the object of the preposition "about," as is "which" in (5).
     Most pedagogical grammars do not deal with this question because they categorize words rather than analyze sentences, and apparently some grammarians themselves are stuck on categories as sorting boxes--a word has to belong in one box, or another. It can't have more than one function. But that simply is not true. 
 
Other Exerccises
Recognizing Subordinate Conjunctions
Subordinate Conjunctions [FiB] (Maxwell L 3.1.2 01) ToC
Subordinate Conjunctions [FiB] (Maxwell L 3.1.2 02) ToC