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KISS Grammar
Level 6.2 Style -- Focus, Logic, and Texture

Introduction
Parallel Constructions
Focus
Logic
Texture
Comparing Two Versions of the Same Text
Comparing Two Students' Papers
Introduction

     "Parallel construction" denotes parallel ideas expressed in parallel (identical) grammatical constructions. Perhaps the most famous example of parallel constructions is Lincoln's "government of the people, by the people, for the people." KISS introduces students to parallel constructions in Level 3.1.2 (Subordinate Clauses). But students should probably do at least one exercise on parallel constructions every year after they do KISS Level 3.1
     For now, the primary exercise on focus is the MIMC (Main Idea in Main Clause) on "Alicia." In this exercise, students are given two topic sentences, one of which focuses on "Alicia won." The other emphasizes that "Alicia had to overcome many difficulties." Seven supporting sentences are constructed as compound main clauses. The students are to revise these to support one of the two topic sentences--by subordinating one clause in each of the seven sentences. Both arguments can be supported in this way, using the same "facts." This exercise not only shows how subordinate clauses affect focus; it also shows how the same “facts” can be manipulated to support different arguments.
     Most of the exercises on logic that were originally in this section have been moved to the levels on clauses, verbals, appositives, or post-positioned adjectives. The "Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases" exercises were made for a review section after KISS Level One. The exercies on "The Logic of Subordinate Clauses" are more important. Many students would be helped by doing one of these every year after they complete KISS Level 3.1, where they are introduced.

     "Texture" includes focus, logic, general variety in sentence construction, vocabulary, etc. For now, KISS exercises on texture present students with two short translations of the same text. The students can analyze both, and the class can then discuss the differences between the two. 



     A green background in the right (grade-level) column indicates that the exercise is in the printable version.
Parallel Constructions
See also Level 3.1.2 - Mixed Subordinate Clauses, Ex. 5 and 6.
 Parallel Subordinate Clauses
* From "A Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King, Jr. (Sub Clauses) AK ToC -
Focus
MIMC Exercises
The Joys of Homework Contributed by Daniel M. Cushing, 8th Grade AK ? ToC -
It’s a Dog’s Life! Contributed by Andrew Sitzmann, 8th Grade AK ? ToC -
Alicia AK ? ToC 1YM
Harry Potter and the Legilimens  Lessons AK ? ToC -
Logic
See also: The Logic of Semicolons, Colons, and Dashes
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prepositional Phrases
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 1) AK ToC -
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 2) AK ToC   -
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prepl Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 3) AK ToC   -
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 4) AK ToC  -
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 5) AK ToC   -
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 6) AK ToC   -
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 7) AK ToC   -
Tense, Number, Logic, and Prep Phrases - (Sadlier Ex. 8) AK ToC   -
The Logic of Subordinate Clauses 
For instructional material and more exercises, see Level 3.1.2
See also Level 6.3 Sentence-Combining.
Based on G. MacDonald's At the Back of the North Wind AK ToC -
Based on G. MacDonald's At the Back of the North Wind AK ToC -
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett (# 2) AK ToC -
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett (# 3) AK ToC 1YM
From The Secret Garden, by Frances Hodgson Burnett (#4) AK ToC 1YM
Texture
Multiple Ways of Combining Sentences:
(MC to Gerundive, App, or PPA)
Instructional Material
See also:
Level 4 - Gerundives, Level 5.4 - Appositives
and Level 5.5 - Post-Positioned Adjectives.
"Rose Valley is a picturesque lake." AK ToC -
"They were watching the football game...." AK ToC -
From Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland AK ToC -
Comparing Two Versions of the Same Text
Aesop's "The Hare and the Tortoise"
The Hare and the Tortoise (Ernest Rhys' Version) AK ToC IG1
Doc Doc-AK
The Hare and the Tortoise (Edward Detmold's Version) AK ToC IG1
Doc Doc-AK
Oliver Herford's Verse Version AK ToC IG1
Doc AK-Doc
Writing Assignments for "The Hare and the Tortoise." TN
Aesop's "The Ass in the Lion's Skin"
Caldecott's Translation AK ToC -
Townsend's Translation AK " "
Writing Assignment -- Compare the two translations
Two Translations of a Passage from Plutarch's "Dion"
Scott-Kilvert's translation AK  ToC -
A.H. Clough's translation AK  " "
Have the students discuss the syntactic differences between the two translations.
Comparing Two Students' Papers
Two Essays Written by Sixth-Grade Students on Fire
From the 2000-2001 Pennsylvania State Standards
[Please see the explanation of this project.]
IG6