Pennsylvania College of  Technology
Return to Bibliographies Menu
Dr. Ed Vavra
Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric

Bibliographies Section

Orality & Literacy

Chaytor,  H.J. 1945. From Script to Print: An Introduction to Medieval Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. [S=Havelock, Muse, 127]

Cherniss, Harold F. 1935 Aristotle's Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 127]

Clanchy, M.T. 1979. From Memory to Written Record: England, 1066-1307. London: Edward Arnold.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 127]

Crosby, Ruth. 1936. Oral Delivery in the Middle Ages. Speculum 11:88-110.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 127]

Derrida, Jacques. 1967 De la Grammatologie. Paris: Editions de Minuit. 1976 [Eng trans.] Of Grammatology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128] [H]

Diringer, David. 1953. The Alphabet: A Key in the History of Mankind. 2nd ed. rev. NY: Philosophical Library.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

Eisenstein, Elizabeth. 1979. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformationns in Early-Modern Europe, 2 vols. NY: Cambridge UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

Febvre, Lucien, and Henri-Jean Martin. 1958 L'Apparition du livre. Paris: Editions Albin-Michel. [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

Finnegan, Ruth. 1970. Oral Literature in Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

_____ . 1982. Oral Literature and Writing in the South Pacific. In Oral andTraditional Literatures, ed. N. Simms. Pacific Quarterly 7.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

Gelb, I. J. 1952. A Study of Writing: The Foundations of Grammatology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Rev. ed 1963.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

Goody, Jack. 1972. The Myth of the Bagre. Oxford.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

_____ . 1977. The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

_____ . and Ian Watt. 1968. The Consequences of Literacy. In Literacy in Traditional Societies, ed. J. Goody, pp. 27-68. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

Goold, G. P. 1960. Homer and the Alphabet. TAPA 91 (1960):272-91.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 128]

Hartman, Geoffrey. 1981. Saving the Text: Literature/Derrida/Philosophy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

Havelock, Eric A. 1952. Why Was Socrates Treid? In Studies in Honour of Gilbert Norwood, Phoenix Suppl. 1:95-109. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____ . 1957. The Liberal Temper in Greek Politics. New Haven: Yale UP; London: Jonathan Cape.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____ . 1958. Parmenides and Odysseus. HSCP 63: 133-43.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____ . 1963. Preface to Plato. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. 1966a Preliteracy and the Presocratics. Institute of Classical Studies Bulletin No. 13: 44-67. University of London.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. 1966b Thoughtful Hesiod. YCS 20: 61-72 [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. 1969 Dikaiosune: An Essay in Greek Intellectual History. Phoenix 23: 49-70.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. The Socratic Self as it is parodied in Aristophanes' Clouds. YCS 22: 1-18.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. 1973a Prologue to Greek Literacy. In University of Cincinnati Classical Studies II, pp. 331-91. Oklahoma: Oklahoma UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____ . 1973b The Sophistication of Homer. In I.A. Richards: Essays in His Honor, pp. 259-75. NY: Oxford UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. 1976. Origins of Western Literacy. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. 1978a. The Greek Concept of Justice from Its Shadow in Homer to Its Substance in Plato. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 129]

_____. 1978b. The Alphabetisation of Homer. In Communication Arts in the Ancient World. ed. Havelock and Hershbell, pp. 3-21. NY: Hastings House.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____. 1979. The Ancient Art of Oral Poetry. Philosophy and Rhetoric. 12: 187-202.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____. 1980. The Oral Composition of Greek Drama. Quaderni Urbanati di Cultura Classica. 35: 61-113.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____. 1982a. The Literate Revolution in Greece and Its Cultural Consequences. Princeton: Princeton UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____. 1982b. Harold A. Innis: A Memoir. Toronto: Harold Innis Foundation.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____. 1983a. The Socratic Problem: Some Second Thoughts. In Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy, ed. Anton and Preus, 2: 147-73. Albany: State University of New York.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____. 1983b. The Linguistic Task of the Presocratics. In Language and Thought in Early Greek Philosophy, ed. Kevin Robb, pp. 7-82. LaSalle, Illinois: Monist Library of Philosophy.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____. The Orality of Socrates and the Literacy of Plato. In New Essays on Socrates, ed. Eugene Kelly, pp. 67-93. washington, D.C.: University Press of America.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____ Oral Composition in Oedipus Tyrannus of Sophocles. New Literary History 16: 175-97.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

_____ . 1986 The Muse Learns to Write: Reflections on Orality and Literacy from Antiquity to the Present. New Haven: Yale UP. [R, N7]

    "Educational theorists have often treated memorization as a dirty word, as though all it meant was repetition by rote of material lacking significance. No greater historical mistake could be made. Our knowledge of ourselves is badly served by such denigration. Not creativity, whatever that may mean, but recall and recollection pose the key to our civilized existence." (70) 

    "We tend to think of the oral storyteller as concerned with his overall 'subject' (a literate term) for which he creates a narrative 'structure' (again a literate term). The more fundamental fact of his linguistic operation is that all subjects of statements have to be narrativised, that is, they must be names of agents who do things, whether actual persons or other forces which are personified. The predicates to which they attach themselves must be predicates of action or of situation present in action, never of essence or existence. The formula 'Honesty is the best policy' is a creature of literate speech, of documented speech. In orally preserved speech, this becomes 'An honest man always prospers.' More likely still, instead of being isolated in a maxim, the man's performance is incorporated in a story where he performs honestly (or fails to perform honestly)." (76) 

    [Chapter 10, "The Special Theory of Greek Literacy," (98 - 116) is a fascinating theory of the Greek development of abstract thought!]

    "The substitution of the 'timeless present,' turning into the 'logical present,' in place of the 'immediate present' or the past or future, became a preoccupation of the pre-Platonic philosophers, particularly Parmenides." (106) 

    "Could the Muse learn, if not to sing, at least to write, in the verb 'to be' rather than in the verb 'to do'?" (107) [Interesting implications for teachers of writing, who often attempt to get students to avoid "be" verbs, but who also complain that students can write narrative, but not "expository" essays. Could it be that students who overuse "be" are moving into literacy from orality? (Beginners are almost always weak and clumsy.) Also, it seems to me that students do not know when to use "to be" appropriately -- as in a definition. In writing characterizations, for example, students often tell me what a character does, but often omit the essence of the characterization (He is weak, virtuous, etc.), i.e., they omit the "be" definition. These students mode of thought is close to that of orality as described by both Ong and Havelock.]

    "Since, as literates, we have only very recently woken up to the presence of orality as a contemporary fact in our midst, revived in the electronic media, there need not be surprise if this provokes a new look at what may have been the role of orality in ancient Greece." (118) [Although Havelock is interested in establishing the orality of ancient Greece, his comment -- and this book -- sheds a new perspective on the common complaint of educators about the effect of television on students.]

Innis, Harold. 1951. The Bias of Communication. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. Reissued 1971.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

Kelber, Werner. 1983. The Oral and the Written Gospel. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 130]

Levy-Bruhl, Lucien. 1910. Les Fonctions mentales dans les societies inferieures. Paris: Alca.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 131]

_____. 1923. Primitive Mentality. (tr. L.A. Clare). NY: Macmilla.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 131]

Luria, A.R. 1968. The Mind of a Mnemonist. NY: Basic Books.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 131]

_____. 1976. Cognitive Development: Its Cultural and Social Foundations, ed. Michael Cole, trans. Martin Lopez-Morillas and Lynn Solotaroff.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 131]

Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1923. The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Language. In The Meaning of Meaning, ed. Ogden and Richards. NY: Harcourt Brace; London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner.296- 336.  [H,R]

    "Language is little influenced by thought, but Thought, on the contrary, having to borrow from action its tool -- that is, language -- is largely influenced thereby. To sum up, we can say that the fundamental grammatical categories, universal to all human languages, can be understood only with reference to the pragmatic Welanschauung of primitive man, and that, through the use of Language, the barbarous primitive categories must have deeply influenced the later philosophies of mankind." (328) [Pages 328-336 then explore the origins of the parts of speech!]
Mayr, Ernst.  1953. Animal Species and Evolution. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 131]

McDiarmid, John. 1953. Theophrastus on the Presocratic Causes. HSCP 61: 85-156.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 131]

McLuhan, Marshall. 1962. The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 131]  [R]

Morris, Sarah P. 1984. The Black and White Style: Athens and Aigina in the Orientalizing Period. New Haven: Yale UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 132]

Nilsson, Martin P. 1933. Homer and Mycenae. London: Methuen. Reprinted, NY: Cooper Square Publishers, 1968.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 132]

Ong, Walter J.  1958. Ramus: Method and the Decay of Dialogue. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 132]

_____. 1967. The Presence of the Word. New Haven: Yale UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 132]

_____. 1971. Rhetoric, Romance, and Technology. Ithaca: Cornell UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 132]

_____. 1977. Interface of the Word. Ithaca: Cornell UP.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 132]

_____ 1982. Orality & Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London:
Methuen. [R, N7 -- one of the most important books I have ever read.]

Robb, Kevin. 1978. The Poetic Sources of the Greek Alphabet: Rhythm and Abecedarium from Phonecian to Greek. In Communication Arts in the Ancient World, pp. 23-36. NY: Hastings House.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

_____ . 1983. Editor, Language and Thought in Early Greek Philosophy. LaSalle, Illinois: Monist Library of Philosophy.  [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1762. Essai sur l'origine des langues: ou il est parle de la melodie et de l'imitation musicale. Reprinted in Oeuvres (21 vols., 1820-23), 13: 143-221. Paris: E.A. Lequien. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Segal, Charles. 1986. Tragedy, Orality, Literacy. In Oralita: Cultura, Letteratura, Discorso: Atti del Convengo Internazionale a cura di Bruno Gentili e Giuseppe Paioni. Rome: Edizioni dell' Ateneo. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Snell, Bruno. 1953. The Discovery of Mind. (*tr. T. Rosenmeyer). Oxford: Oxford UP. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Tedlock, D. 1977. Toward an Oral Poetiv=cs. New Literary History 8: 507-19. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Turner, Frank. M. The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain. New Haven: Yale UP. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Vernant, J.-P. 1967. Tensions and Ambiguities in Greek Tragedy. In Interpretation: Theory and Practice. ed. C.A. Singleton, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Wade-Gery, H.T. 1952. The Poet of the Iliad. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

Watt, Ian. 1963. Alphabetic Culture and Greek Thought. In The Consequences of Literacy, by Jack Goody and Ian Watt, pp. 42-54. Cpmparative Studies in Society and History V, no. 3. [S=Havelock, Muse, 133]

This border is a reproduction of 
François Boucher's
(1703 - 1770) 
Diana Leaving her Bath
1742, oil on canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris 
Carol Gerten's Fine Art

Click here for the directory of my backgrounds based on art.
[For educational use only.]