Last Updated 6/20/00
Pennsylvania College of  Technology
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Dr. Ed Vavra
Assoc. Prof. of Rhetoric

Bibliographies Section


Bock, J. K. (1982) Toward a cognitive psychology of syntax: Information processing contributions to sentence formulation. Psychological Review, 89, 1-47.

Bock, J. K., & Cutting, J. C. (1992). Regulating mental energy: Performance units in language production. Journal of Memory and Language, 31, 99-127.

Bock, K., & Levelt, W. (1994). Language production: Grammatical encoding. In M. A. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of psycholinguistics (pp. 945-984). San Diego: Academic Press.

Carroll, David W. Psychology of Language. 3rd ed.Pacific Grove:  Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. 1999. [R,N7,X 184-187,198-201,169-276, Bib]

[very limited definition of grammar -- limited to transformational (36)]

"observed differences between children and adults on cognitive tasks may have more to do with the use of information processing resources than with qualitative shifts in thinking." (62)

"When working on new syntactic structures, a demanding task, the child may compensate by attending less to phonological specification. Perhaps only later, when the syntax comes a little easier, will the child be able to master both levels simultaneously." (62)

"When words are familiar, we can perceive them as complete units rather than as sets of letters." (97)

[on first responses to the word chair:]
"... four types of semantic relations predominate (Miller, 1991). First, there are taxonomic relations. Table is a coordinate term, furniture is a superordinate term, and rocker is a subordinate of chair. Second, there are attributive relations, which are terms that identify attributes of the word. Mostly these are adjectives, such as comfortable, wooden, hard, or white. Third, there are part-whole relations, which are terms that name a part of something or that name the whole of which something is a part. Examples here are seat, cushion, and legs. Finally, there are functional relations. Words such as sitting, rest, and rocking indicate what can be done with a chair. (107)

"Daneman and Carpenter (1980), for example, distinguish between the storage and processing functions of working memory." (163)

[On remembering surface structures of sentences:]
"... Kintsch and Bates (1977), in a study of recall of lecture material, found that their students often remembered the exact wording of extraneous comments such as announcements, jokes, and asides. Apparently, we can remember the exact wording of some material when it is distinctive and easily separable from the rest of the discourse." (167)

[Fromkin's Model of Speech Production -- the syntactic structure of a sentence is formulated before the words are chosen for the syntactic slots ???? (198)]
"What evidence can be given that the stages hypothesized in Table 8-2 [Fromkin's model] are actually independent of one another? Probably the clearest evidence is that the vast majority of speech errors contain mistakes at only one level of planning." (198) [Xerox 198-201]

[on production of speech:]
"we might be able to implement some plans while we are in the process of formulating others. This notion, which Kempen and Hoenkamp (1987) call incremental processing, can be described in the following way. Suppose we characterize a complete sentence as a series of units. Given this, it is surely the case that we plan unit x before we articulate unit x. In this sense, our implementation of linguistic plans is serial. But, at the same time that we are articulating unit x, we are planning unit x + 1; in this sense, processing is parallel.
     A brief digression: we might reasonably ask at this point what "units" are -- are they clauses, phrases, words, syllables, phonemes? The answer is probably all of the above (Foss & Hakes, 1978). At various times in the course of production we treat all of these as processing units. The unit of production depends, in part, on the amount of resources needed for a given portion of the message. An infrequent or difficult word might command a good share of our resources, whereas an entire routiniized phrase such as a cliché could be activated as a complete unit. It is therefore not possible to identify any one unit of language as 'the' unit of production." (208)

     "The Kempen and Hoenkamp (1987) model is also an example of a lexically driven approach to sentence production. In this respect it contrasts with a model such as Fromkin's that assumes that the syntactic structure is laid out in advance and then content words are fitted into the structure. According to the lexical approach, the production process may begin with words that are conceptually accessible, which then trigger the syntactic structure, not the other way around (Bock & Levelt, 1994). For example, words that are more easily retrieved may be placed early on in a sentence or constituent (Bock, 1982). The lexical approach is consistent with the lexical-functional grammar of Bresnan that we discussed in Chapter 2. Moreover, in emphasizing that the lexical level may influence the syntactic level and not simply vice versa, it is similar in spirit to the spreading activation view of production (Dell, 1986)." (209)

"A complex sentence is one that expresses more than one proposition. Passive  sentences convey a single idea in linguistically complex form. Other sentences, such as coordinations, complements, and relative clauses, express more than one idea. (290-91) [Implies that a clause equals an "idea."]

"A complement is a noun phrase that includes a verb." [??? Uses "I want to go home." as an example.]

     "Finally, a relative clause is a wh-clause that modifies a noun. When a wh-clause modifies the object of a sentence, it is called an object relative clause. . . . There are also subject relative clauses, such as sentence (25) in which who was lost modifies the boy:
(24) I did the thing what you just did.
(25) The boy who was lost was found unharmed.
Children's first relative clauses tend to be object clauses (Limber, 1973). Subject relative clauses may be more difficult because of processing limitations (Goodluck & Tavakolian, 1982). Notice that the subject relatives require a speaker to interrupt a clause to modify the subject, then return to complete the clause. It is likely that such constructions overload young children's working memory. (291-2)

Dell. G. S. (1985) Positive feedback in hierarchical connectionist models: Applications to language production, Cognitive Science, 9, 3-23.

Dell. G. S. (1986). A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review, 93, 283-321.

Dell. G. S. (1988). The retrieval of phonological forms in production: Tests of predictions from a connectionist model. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 124-142.

Dell. G. S., Burger, L. K., & Svec, W. R. (1997) Language Production and serial order: A functional analysis and a model. Psychological Review, 104, 123-147.

Dell. G. S., & Reich, P. A. (1981). Stages in sentence production: An analysis of speech error data. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 20, 611-629.

Foss, D. J. (1969) Decision processes during sentence comprehension: Effects of lexical item difficyulty and position upon decision times. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 457-462.

Foss, D. J. (1970). Some effects of ambiguity upon sentence comprehension. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 699-706.

Foss, D. J., & Hakes, D. T. (1978) Psycholinguistics: An introduction to the psychology of language. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Foss, D. J., & Jenkins, C. M. (1973) Some effects of context on the comprehension of ambiguous sentences.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 577-589.

Fromkin, V., & Rodman, R. (1974) An introduction to language. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Fromkin, V. A. (1971). The non-anomalous nature of anomalous utterances. Language, 47, 27-52.

Fromkin, V. A. (Ed.) (1973). Speech errors as linguistic evidence. The Hague: Mouton. 

Fromkin, V. A. (Ed.) (1980) Errors in linguistic performance. New York: Academic Press.

Garrett, M. F. (1975) The analysis of sentence production. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and memory: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 9, pp. 133-177). New York: Academic Press.

Garrett, M. F.  (1980). The limits of accommodation. In V.A. Fromkin (Ed.), Errors in linguistic performance (pp. 263-271). New York: Academic Press.

Garrett, M. F.  (1988). Processes in language production. In F. J. Newmeyer (Ed.), Linguistics: The Cambridge Survey: Vol. III. Language: Psychological and biological aspects (pp. 69-96). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goodluck, H., & Tavakolian, S. (1982). Competence and processing in children's grammar of relative clauses. Cognition, 11, 1-27. [H, R, X -- a study of 4-year-olds (and 5-year-olds)]

"We conclude that our analysis is compatible with a picture of acquisition in which the child's competence grammar of relatives is not qualitatively different from the adult's." (2)

[This study explores how well four- and five-year-olds can understand sentences such as:
"The lion kisses the duck that hits the pig." (3)
"The cow kisses the horse that jumps over the fence." (3)
"The boy hits the girl that jumps over the fence." (8)
"The boy is hit by the girl after jumping over the fence." (8)
Although the study is interesting in cognitive terms (Children understand relative clauses with inanimate objects before they understand clauses with animate objects.), it does not offer anything that I can see relative to what grammar should be taught in school.]
Isakson, Carol S. and Jan H. Spyridakis. (1999) The influence of semantics and syntax on what readers remember. Technical Communication. Aug, 1999, 366-381 [ProQuest <>] [R, HX]

Kempen, G., & Hoenkamp, E. (1987). An incremental procedural grammar for sentence formulation. Cognitive Science, 11, 201-258.

Limber, J. (1973). The genesis of complex sentences. In T.E. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive development and the acquisition of language (pp. 169-185). New York: Academic Press.

"This chapter concerns the development of complex sentences in a number of English-speaking children before their third birthday." (170)

[Focusses on whether or not constructions appear in children's speech -- does not consider whether the children understand them. (171)]

"I will consider any sentence with more than one verb (V) as complex; auxiliaries and possessives are perhaps arbitrarily excluded." (171) [Like so much of the research into pre-school linguistic development, this article is deceptive. "I want Bill to go" is defined as a complex sentence. Unfortunately, too many people read the conclusions of these studies and then agree that students have entirely mastered grammar before they enter school. Therefore there is no need to teach it in school. As Limber states:
Leopold (1949b), for example, in his classic study, remarks about his daughter of 2 years, 11 months (2;11) that ". . . with the mastery of complex sentences, the linguistic development has reached the last stage. In the future only refinements can be expected. In general, it is astonishing how little her language differs from recognized usage [Vol 4, p. 37]." (170)
What I find astonishing is that many linguists, including some in ATEG, claim that we have to read this stuff before we can develop instructional material on grammar for students in K - college. 

MacKay, D. G. (1978) Derivational rules and the internal lexicon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 61-71.

MacKay, D. G. (1982). The problem of flexibility, fluency, and speed-accuracy trade-off in skilled behavior. Psychological Review, 89, 483-506.

MacKay, D. G. (1987). The organization of perception and action: A theory for language and other cognitive skills. New York: Springer.

Stemberger, J. P. (1985). An interactive activation model of language production. In A. w. Ellis (ed.), Progress in the psychology of language (Vol. 1, pp. 143-186). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

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