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(Code and Color Key)

Gerunds as Objects of Prepositions
Ex # 3 based on Black Beauty, by Anna Sewell
Analysis Key

1. I never see a wicked thing (DO) {like this} {without doing [#1] [DO 

what (DO) I can]. } |
 

2. Many a master has thanked me (DO) {for letting him know [#2] [DO 

how his horses have been used (P) ] }. |
 

3. [Adv. to "almost" When it came {to being sent abroad, {over the sea} {in a 

great ship}, }] he almost changed his mind (DO). |
 

4. { Instead of being shaken or staggered {in our pace} }, our gallop 

became faster and faster [Adv. to "became" as we neared the cannon (DO),

all clouded [#3] {in white smoke}, [Adv. to "clouded" [#4] while the red fire 

flashed {through it} ]]. |
 

5. [Adv. to "is" If you get {into the habit} {of being quick [#5] },] it is just 

as easy (PA) {as being slow [#6] }. |
 

6. It would prevent your religious people (DO) {from making us work [#7] 

{on Sundays} }. |


Notes
1. The verbal (gerund) "doing" is the object of the preposition "without," and the following clause is the direct object of the gerund.
2. "Him" is the subject of the verbal (infinitive) "know." The infinitive phrase is the direct object of the verbal (gerund) "letting" which is the object of the preposition "for." The following clause is the direct object of the infinitive "know."
3. The verbal (gerundive) "clouded" modifies "cannon."
4. I have explained this clause as modifying clouded based on the idea that things will chunk to the nearest construction that makes sense. Some people, however, may validly see it as modifying "neared."
5. "Quick" is a predicate adjective after the verbal (gerund) "being."
6. "Slow" is a predicate adjective after the verbal (gerund) "being." The prepositional phrase modifies the previous "as" which, in turn, modifies "easy." Some grammarians will see this "phrase" as an ellipsed subordinate clause -- "as being slow *is easy*."
7. "Us" is the subject of the verbal (infinitive) "work." The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of "making."