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Pronouns as Subjects
From A Book of Myths, by Jean Lang
Analysis Key

1. Stark (PA) and grim (PA) was the three-headed watchdog, Cerberus [#1],

[Adj. to "Cerberus" which guarded the door (DO)], | and {with the growls and

the furious roaring} {of a wild beast} athirst [#2] {for its prey} it greeted Orpheus (DO). |

2. She was the fairest thing (PN) {on earth}, worthy (PA) [#3] indeed {of the

deathless gods} [Adj. to "gods" who had created her (DO)]. |

3. And still do we watch the butterfly (DO), [Adj. to "butterfly" which is her

emblem (PN)], bursting [#4] {from its ugly tomb} {in the dark soil}, and 

spreading joyous white and gold-powdered wings [#4] {in the caressing sunshine},

{amidst the radiance and the fragrance} {of the summer flowers}. |

4. All the heroes gazed {at her} {with eyes} [Adj. to "eyes" that adored her

beauty (DO)]. |

5. Great (PA) was the shout [Adj. to "shout" that rose {from those} [Adj.

to "those" who still lived [Adv. to "lived" when that grim hunt thus came {to an end}]]]. |

6. {Upon the earth}, and {on the children} {of men} [Adj. to "men" who were {as

gods} {in their knowledge and mastery} {of the force} {of fire}], Jupiter had had his 

revenge (DO). |

7. {From her bed} sprang Althæa, | and, heedless {of the flames}, she seized

the burning wood (DO), trod {on it} {with her fair white feet}, and poured {on it}

water (DO) [Adj. to "water" that swiftly quenched its red glow (DO)]. |

8. Telamon rushed on to destroy the filthy thing [#5] [Adj. to "thing" that 

would have made carrion (DO) {of the sons} {of the gods}]. |

9. The merchants wondered [DO who could be the one (PN) [Adj. 

to "one" {upon whom} Pygmalion lavished the money (DO) {from his treasury}]]. |

10. And {from the trees} sang birds {with song} more sweet [#6] {than any} 

[Adj. to "any" that (DO) Psyche had ever known], and [#7] {with brilliant plumage}

[Adj. to "plumage" which (DO) they preened caressingly [Adv. to "preened"

when they had dipped their wings (DO) {in crystal-sparkling fountains}]]. |

1. "Cerberus" is an appositive to "watchdog."
2. "Athirst" is a post-positioned adjective to "beast."
3. The lack of an "and" between "thing" and "worthy" implies that "worthy" presents not another attribute, but another perspective on "the fairest." In other words, it tends to turn "worthy" into an appositive. to "the fairest."
4. "Wings" is the direct object of "spreading." "Bursting" and "spreading" can be explained as verbals (gerundives) that modify "butterfly." [At KISS Level Five, some people will prefer to explain "butterfly ... bursting ... and spreading" as the core of a noun absolute that functions as the direct object of "watch." See KISS Level 5.8 - Noun Absolutes.
5. "Thing" is the direct object of the verbal (infinitive) "to destroy." The infinitive phrase functions as an adverb of purpose to "rushed on."
6.  "Sweet" is a post-positioned adjective to "song."
7. This "and" creates a parallel construction with two "with" phrases, each of which is modified by a clause (or clauses). But the very elaboration of the "with" phrases may confuse many weaker readers. (Ask them  what the "and" joins -- especially if they have not yet done much work in KISS Grammar -- and see how many can answer correctly.) The four S/V/C patterns in a single main clause increase the complexity, as may some of the vocabulary.