The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks The KISS Workbooks Anthology
(Code and Color Key)

Adverbial Subordinate Clauses
Based on The Queen of the Pirate Isle, by Bret Harte
Illustrated by Kate Greenaway
Analysis Key

1. [Adv. to "were lifted" Before the children could fairly comprehend

[DO what had passed]], they were again lifted (P) {into the truck} and

began to glide [#1] back {into the tunnel}. |

2. Fortunately, the representation {of a resuscitated person} required

such extraordinary acting (DO) [#2] [Adv. to "such" that Mrs. Smith

was resuscitated (P) only {for a day}]. |

3. Hickory softly scratched his leg (DO) [Adv. to "scratched" while

broad, bashful smile, [#3] almost closed his small eyes (DO)]. |

4. Indeed, most {of Polly's impersonations} were got rid of  [#4] {in this

way}, [Adv. to "were got rid of" although it {by no means} prevented 

their subsequent reappearance (DO)]. |

5. A bland smile broke {on Wan Lee's face}, [Adv. to "broke" as, {to

the children's amazement}, he quietly disengaged himself (DO) {from 

the group} and stepped {before the leader}]. |

6. The famous old lode {of Red Mountain} never would have been

found (P) [Adv. to "never" if Polly hadn't tumbled {over the slide}

directly {on top} {of the outcrop}]. |

7. Satisfied [ [#5] that no one could observe her (DO)], she softly 

visited the bedside (DO) {of each} {of her companions}, and administered 

{from a purely fictitious bottle} spoonfuls (DO) {of invisible medicine}. |

8. Even [#6] [Adv. to "never" when her companions sometimes hesitated 

{from actual hunger or fatigue} and forgot their guilty part (DO)], she 

never faltered. |

9. Limited [#7] [Adv. to "limited" as her functions were], Polly performed 

them (DO) {with inimitable gravity and unquestioned sincerity}. |

10. This was a favourite imaginative situation (PN) {of Polly's} [#8] ,

but [#9] only indulged (P) [Adv. (Time)  to "only" when her companions

were asleep], partly [Adv. (Cause)  to "only" because she could not trust

confederates (DO) {with her more serious fancies}], and partly [Adv. to

"only" because  (Cause) [#10] they were {at such times} passive (PA)

{in her hands}]. |

1. The verbal (infinitive) "to glide" functions as the direct object of "began."
2. Because it is modified by adjectives. most grammarians would probably not consider "acting" to be a gerund, but in KISS either explanation (gerund or :"regular" noun) is acceptable.
3. In the text from which these sentences were taken, Harte frequently separates a subject from its verb by a comma. This is not standard practice.
4. "Were got rid of" is idiomatic for "were eliminated." Thus this verb is in the passive voice.
5. This "that" clause is adverbial because it answers the question "how?" in relation to "Satisfied." "Satisfied" is a verbal (gerundive) that modifies "she."
6. Note that "Even" functions as an adverb to the entire following "when" clause.
7. "Limited" can be explained as a gerundive that modifies "them." Some people may prefer to see an ellipsed "As" in front of it. That would make the following "as" clause adverbial to the ellipsed "As" (which would modify "Limited").
8. "Polly's" would normally function as an adjective. Thus, people who want to be more technical can see ellipsis here -- "of Polly's *imaginative situations*." They may also prefer to see the prepositional phrase as adverbial to "favourite."
9. This "but" can be seen as joining two compounded verbs. If that seems awkward, it can be seen as joining two main clauses, the second of which is partially ellipsed -- "but *it was* only indulged . . . ."
10. You may want to tell students that the two "because" clauses form what is known as a "parallel construction." Two reasons are given and each is in an adverbial causal clause.