The Printable KISS Grammar Workbooks To Charles Dickens Page
(Code and Color Key)

More Practice with Helping Verbs
from Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
Analysis Key

1. Mr. Cruncher all this time [NuA] had been putting on [#1] his 

     clothes (DO). |

2. This must be kept (P) secret (RPA) [#2] {from Lucie}. |

3. We had better go in. |

4. I should have been much the same sort (PN) {of fellow}, [Adv. 

     (condition) to "should have been" if I had had any luck (DO)]. |

5. I am going to tell you (IO) something (DO) [Adj. to "something" 

     that will rather surprise you (DO)]. |

6. The real wickedness and guilt {of his business} might have remained

     undiscovered (PA). |

7. "Well! [Inj] you have been present (PA) all day [NuA], | and you 

     ought to know." |

8. It could scarcely be called (P) a trade (RPN) [#3] , {in spite} {of his

     favourite description} {of himself} {as "a honest tradesman}." |

9. That abominable place would have been haunted (P) {in a most ghastly

     manner}. |

10. His shirt was open (PA) {at the throat}, [Adv. (manner) to "was" and 

     "open" as it used to be [Adv. (time) to "used to be" when he did that 

     work (DO)]]. |

1. Expect some students to be confused by "putting on." Technically, the "on" can be considered part of the verb phrase or as an adverb to it. The question is addressed in KISS Level 2.1.5 - Phrasal Verbs (Preposition? Or Part of the Verb?). Here we might simply note that the sentence means that he was putting his clothes on his body.
2. "Secret" is a retained predicate adjective after the passive verb. The active voice version would be "We must keep it *to be* secret from Lucie." In that version, "it" is the subject and "secret" is a predicate adjective of the ellipsed infinitive "to be." For more on this, see KISS Level 5.7 - Passive Voice and Retained Complements.
3. This is similar to note 2, but in this case, the active voice would be "They could scarcely call it *to be* a trade.